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Original research papers. Kinematic Characterisation of the Lunge and the Fleche in Epee Fencing: Two Case Studies

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of this study was to characterise the whole body dynamics and upper and lower joint kinematics during two common fencing steps: the lunge and the fleche. Material and methods. Two male competitive epee fencers were studied. Kinematics data were collected at 120 Hz (BTS Smart system) and ground reaction forces were measured at 120 Hz (Kistler platform). The resultant centre of gravity and end segment velocities were calculated. Temporal events were referenced to the horizontal ground reaction force. Time domain linear joint velocities were extracted. Results. At the whole-body level, the resultant centre of gravity velocity was higher during the fleche (2.64 and 2.89 m/s) than during the lunge (1.94 and 2.21 m/s). At the joint level, the wrist and elbow attained their peak velocities earlier than the proximal joint for both the lunge and the fleche for both athletes. Conclusions. The sequence of peak segmental velocities followed a distal to proximal sequence for both fencing steps.

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The Basketball Pass: A Systematic Review

Abstract

The aim of this study was to review and organise current literature about the basketball pass and find the main factors that influence its learning skills and performance. Thirty-seven studies were included after the screening process. The documents were classified into main research topics. This review identified the following conclusions: (i) the assessment of passing performance should be made under uncertain and variable conditions to obtain information on players’ responses to competitive scenarios, (ii) it is advisable to incorporate new and random activities to facilitate the transference of learning to the competition, (iii) it is recommended to include overwhelming factors during the practice to minimise the effect of pressure and choking, (iv) optimal physical conditioning is essential to maintain passing performance during a basketball game, (v) small sided games and changing environments stand as the best training situations to improve passing skills. Furthermore, limited information is available about biomechanical aspects and physical conditioning training programs to improve passing skills in basketball. Likewise, there is sparse data on passing skills development in children.

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Effects of Explosive Type Strength Training on Selected Physical and Technical Performance Characteristics in Middle Distance Running - a Case Report

Abstract

Introduction. Distance running performance is a simple function of developing high speeds and maintaining this speed as long as possible. Thus a correct running technique becomes an important component of performance. Technique is effective if the competitor can reach a better performance result with the same or lower energy consumption. The purpose of this investigation was to examine a six weeks application explosive type strength training on lower extremities power and maximum speed performance improvement in order to facilitate running technique in sub-elite male middle-distance runner. Material and methods. A sub-elite runner performed twice a week special exercises and running drills. He completed a pre and post-training jumping (SJ, CMJ, standing long jump, standing five jump) and speed (20 m from standing and flying start) field tests. For kinematical analysis, a video (SIMI Motion System) of a 10 m sprint from a 20 m flying start was collected. Results. Improvement occurred in all measurements but strong changes were evident in the 10 m from 20 flying start and in stride frequency from 3.90 to 4.01 Hz, due to decreasing of ground contact time from 160 to 156 ms. No strong evidence in the participant's running technique changes. Conclusion. This proved that six weeks of dynamic type strength program seems to improve neuromuscular characteristics of running speed and explosive power and no changes in running technique.

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Biomechanical Criterions to Estimate Round-Off Tucked Performance Among Acrobats Aged 10-11

References King, M. A. & Yeadon M. R. (2003). Coping with perturbations to a layout somersault in tumbling. J. Biomech. 36(7), 921-927. Sadowski, J., Bołoban V., Wiśniowski W., Mastalerz A. & Niźnikowski T. (2005). Key components of acrobatic jump. Biol. Sport 22(4), 385-395. Niźnikowski, T., Sadowski J., Bołoban W., Mastalerz A., Wiśniowski W. & Niźnikowska E. (2006). Teaching technology of the sports technique of complex movement structure exercises. In A. Kuder, K. Perkowski

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Kinematics and Kinetics of Taekwon-do Side Kick

Kinematics and Kinetics of Taekwon-do Side Kick

The aim of the paper is to present an analysis of the influence of selected kinematic factors on the side kick technique. This issue is especially important in the traditional version of taekwon-do, in which a single strike may reveal the winner. Six taekwon-do (International Taekwon-do Federation) athletes were asked to participate in this case study. Generally accepted criteria of sports technique biomechanical analysis were adhered to. The athletes executed a side kick three times (in Taekwon-do terminology referred to as yop chagi) in a way which they use the kick in board breaking. The obtained data were used to determine the mean velocity changes in the function of relative extension length of the kicking leg. The maximum knee and foot velocities in the Cartesian coordinate system were determined. The leg lifting time and the duration of kick execution as well as the maximum force which the standing foot exerted on the ground were also determined. On the basis of the obtained values, mean values and standard deviations were calculated. The correlation dependence (r=0.72) shows that greater knee velocity affects the velocity which the foot develops as well as the fact that the total time of kick execution depends on the velocity which the knee (r = -0.59) and the foot (r = -0.86) develop in the leg lifting phase. The average maximum speed was obtained at the length of the leg equal to 82% of the maximum length of the fully extended leg. This length can be considered the optimum value for achieving the maximum dynamics of the kick.

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Activities of Physical Education Teachers in the Process of Forming Motor Skills of the Students

Pedagogiczne. [in Polish] Czabański, B. (1989). Selected Issues of Learning and Teaching Sports Techniques. Wrocław: AWF Wrocław. [in Polish] Sulisz, S. (1991). Physical Education in Primary School. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne. [in Polish] Czabański, B. (1980). Model of Learning and Teaching Sport Motoric Activities. Wrocław: Studia i Monografie AWF Wrocław, 1. [in Polish] Zatoń, K. (1995). Verbal Information at the Physical Education Lessons

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Teachers' Performance in Relation to Teaching of Motor Skills during Lessons of Physical Education

). Key problems of the theory of physical education. Kraków: Impuls. [in Polish] Czabański B. (1980). The model of learning and teaching of sports motor actions. Wrocław: AWF Wrocław. [in Polish] Czabański B. (1989). Selected aspects of learning and teaching of sports technique. Wrocław: AWF Wrocław. [in Polish]

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The Relationship Between Biomechanical Indicators of the Snatch Technique and Female Weightlifters' Levels

References 1. Nawrat A., Król H. (1990). Sweeping moves in weightlifting. Roczniki Naukowe AWF Katowice 18, 23-36. [in Polish] 2. Oleszko W.G. (1981). Managing the training process as more important (significant) for effective performance weightlifters preparing for competitions . Paper of Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences Dissertation no. 13 00.04/KGIFK.-K. [in Polish] 3. Król H. (2003). Criteria for the selection and evaluation of exercises improving sports technique . Katowice: AWF Katowice. [in Polish] 4. Newton H. (2002). Explosive lifting

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Strength of the Shoulder Rotators in Second-League Volleyball Players

Literature 1. Fidelus K., Skorupski L. (1970). Muscle torque in particular joints in athletes from different sports disciplines. In “Symposium on Sports Technique Theory”, 26-28 November 1968 (pp. 128-140). Warszawa. [in Polish] 2. Tabor P., Mastalerz A., Ostrowska E., Iwańska D., Stachowicz M., Urbanik Cz. (2003). Assessing volleyball technique using cinematographic motion analysis. In Cz. Urbanik (ed.), Issues in sports biomechanics – movement technique (pp. 106-118). Warszawa: AWF. [in Polish] 3. Smith D. (2006). Incorporating kinetic

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Biomechanical, Neuro-muscular and Methodical Aspects of Running Speed Development

Coppenolle H, Willems E, Van Leemputte M, Diels R, Goris M. Influence of high resistance and high-velocity training on sprint performance. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1995, 27(8), 1203-1209. Donati A. Development of stride length and stride frequency in sprint performances. New Studies in Athletics, 1996, 34(1), 3-8. Hay JG. The biomechanics of sports techniques (4 ed.): Prentice Hall, 1993. Huiling PA. Elastic potential of muscle. V. Strength and power in sport. Ured.: Komi, P. V. 1999. The

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