, version 3. Online manuscript available at: http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/research/phonetics/E_ToBI/ Bishop, J. B. (2002). Aspects of intonation and prosody in Bininj gun-wok: Autosegmental-metrical analysis. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Melbourne, Melbourne. Blaauw, E. (1994). The contribution of prosodic boundary markers to the perceptual difference between read and spontaneousspeech. Speech Communication , 14 (4), 359-375. doi: 10.1016/0167-6393(94)90028-0 Boersma, P. and Weenink, D. (2016). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer [Computer program
. Hardison, Debra M. 2004. Generalization of computer-assisted prosody training: quantitative and qualitative findings. Language Learning and Technology 8(1): 34–52. Hirschberg, Julia–Gravano, Agustín–Nenkova, Ani–Sneed, Elisa–Ward, Gregory. 2007. Intonational overload: uses of the downstepped (H*! H* -L %) contour in read and spontaneousspeech. Laboratory Phonology 9: 455–482. Jenkins, Jennifer. 2000. The phonology of English as an international language: new models, new norms, new goals . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kaltenboeck, Gunther. 2001. A multimedia
The goal of this paper is to present findings about vowel lengthening at morpho-syntactically defined prosodic boundaries. The data come from a corpus of spontaneous speech from Vimeu Picard, a Gallo- Romance language. A total of 10 672 vowel durations are measured, and 5336 vowel ratios are calculated, providing data for the prosodic word, clitic group, phonological phrase, intonational phrase, and the utterance. A general increase in vowel duration is observed as one ascends the prosodic hierarchy, without adjusting for rate of speech. Significant differences in vowel ratio are found between the clitic group and all other phrases, the prosodic word and the intonational phrase, the phonological phrase and the intonational phrase, and the intonational phrase and the utterance. Contrary to what was expected, vowel ratios at the utterance edge were found to be significantly shorter than vowel ratios at the intonational phrase edge. This may be because pauses are greater for the utterance than for the intonational phrase.
We propose a text classification method for the purpose of creating a language model for automatic recognition of spontaneous spoken speech. Transcripts from our departmental speech database served as spontaneous spoken texts. Using supervised machine learning methods, we have created multiple classification models (including neural networks), that were able to distinguish them from written texts with high accuracy. We subsequently verified the accuracy of our trained models on a database of texts containing direct speech extracted from newspaper articles.
References Bates, E. (1999). Letter to the Info-Childes. Child Language Bulletin , 19 (1). Blake, J., Quartaro, G., & Onorati, S. (1993). Evaluating quantitative measures of grammatical complexity in spontaneousspeech samples. Journal of Child Language 20, 139-152 Bol, G. W. (1996). Optional subjects in Dutch child language. In Ch. Koster & F. Wijnen (Eds.), Proceedings of the Groningen Assembly on Language Acquisition (pp. 125-133). Groningen: Centre for Language and Cognition. Bol, G. W. (2003). MLU-Matching and the Production of Morphosyntax in Dutch
This paper deals with the position of three Czech subordinating conjunctions že ’that’, když ‘when’, and až ‘when’ within the prosodic word, using the phonetic annotation in the ORTOFON corpus. The position of subordinating conjunctions is traditionally described as initial within the subordinate clause, but the situation in spontaneous speech is not so clear. This paper shows the functional differences between the various positions within the prosodic word and presents the words which are most frequently combined with the selected conjunctions.
The article aims to present the role of reading aloud in a foreign language class. Why is this ability to read important in student learning? What is its place and function in learning? How? ‘or’ What to do so that reading aloud can serve expression not only oral but also written? We assume that learning foreign languages is very useful for those who need to acquire basic communication skills in a short period of time. Nevertheless, it must also be appropriate for those who learn the foreign language with a professional purpose, and who will have to communicate correctly and to pronounce well in specialized contexts. We consider reading aloudto bea good technique for memorizing certain information over the long term. In addition, it opens up a cultural, social and emotional dimension of the language. Unfortunately, this activity has been wrongly overlooked. Therefore, in the first section of the paper, we will try to rehabilitate the reading aloud activity in the foreign language class. The next section discusses the implications and benefits of reading aloud for advanced students. The final section presents activities and objectives of reading aloud, as well as certain strategies used to facilitate the initiation of spontaneous speech and communication.
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spontaneousspeech. Journal of Memory and Language, 2001, roč. 44, s. 274 - 296. Bortfeld, Heather - Leon, Silvia - Bloom, Jonathan - Schober, Michael - Brennan, Susan: Disfluency rates in conversation: effects of age, relationship, topic, role, and gender. Language and Speech, 2001, roč. 44, č. 2, s. 123 - 147. Charniak, Eugene - Johnson, Mark: Edit Detection and Parsing for Transcribed Speech. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL ), 2001. Christenfeld, Nicolas: Does it hurt to say um? In