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Safety and Reliability in Skydiving Activities

The paper is devoted to the safety of skydiving, to the reliability of parachute equipment and to the human factors in safety and reliability in listed areas. In the paper, there are detailed statistical coefficients of the reliability of the parachute equipment and statistical coefficients of the skydiving injuries and the skydiving fatalities. There are detailed principal reasons of the skydiving injuries and the skydiving fatalities.

The influence of education on differences in depressive symptoms between men and women in Slovenia

Background: This paper discusses depressive symptoms among men and women in Slovenia and their relationship to various socioeconomic factors, and education in particular.

Methods: The analysis is based on the European Social Survey Round 3 (ESS-3) from 2006, for the Slovene population (n = 1,282). Depressive symptoms, as a dependent variable, are measured using an 8-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D 8) scale. Independent variables included in the research model are: gender, age, education, income, marital and employment status and the presence of a child under the age of 12 in the household. Using mean comparisons of depression symptoms and regression analyses, the paper presents gender differences in depression levels and factors that influence it.

Results: Education contributes to lower depression levels in both genders; however, its influence is substantially higher among women. Depression symptoms are closely related to education. Lower educated women show a significantly higher score in depression symptoms than lower educated men. However, higher educated women show better mental health than higher educated men. Different sociodemographic factors influence the levels of depression symptoms differently between genders. The impact of housework as an employment status thus significantly influences higher levels of depression only among men. Similar indications for age, widowhood and the absence of partnership. In contrast, the influence of work disability on depression is only significant for women.

Conclusion: The influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on depression symptoms is greater for women than men.


Background: This article explores gender trends in self-rated health in Slovenia over the period of thirty years. The main research goals are to examine the associations between gender, social class and health, establish the extent that the patterns of subjective health converge with those in other countries and identify the most vulnerable health groups.

Methods: The study is based on six waves of the Slovenian Public Opinion survey carried out between 1981 and 2012 on representative samples of the adult Slovenian population. The main dependent variables are the respondent’s self-assessed health and three indicators of psychosomatic health - experiences of insomnia, irregular heartbeat and anxiety. The main independent variables are gender and socio-economic status. The relationship between them was examined using Chi-square tests.

Results: The 30 year trend is consistent with prior studies, which found that women report poorer self-assessed health than men. In Slovenia, this gender gap was observed in both social classes, but was more pronounced for women in the lower educated category. The higher prevalence of stress symptoms among women supports the theory of chronic exhaustion resulting from the dual-role strain.

Conclusions: In Slovenia the welfare state was able to buffer the adverse effects of increased economic stresses to a significant extent after 1991, resulting in favourable health outcomes for both genders. Dismantling these arrangements may result in short-term financial gains but is likely to trigger long-lasting negative consequences for public health, especially in the case of vulnerable groups such as women.


Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has increased dramatically in recent decades. The survey examined overweight and obesity in the population of boys and girls from Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, aged seven through fourteen from 1991 to 2011.

Methods: An annually repeated cross-sectional study of data from the national SLOFIT monitoring system was used. The body mass index cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force were used to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Multinomial logistic regression was used for modelling the probability of overweight and obesity as a function of time (year of measurement), sex and age of subjects.

Results: In 1991-2011 period, the odds for overweight and obesity among primary school children (n = 376,719) increased every year by 1.7% (95% CI: 1.6-1.9) and 3.7% (3.4-4%) respectively. Boys have 1.17 (95% CI: 1.15-1.20) times higher odds of becoming overweight and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.35-1.44) times higher odds of becoming obese than girls. In comparison to the reference group (age of 14), the highest odds for overweight were found at the ages of nine and ten (1.39; 95% CI: 1.34-1.44), while for the obesity the highest odds were at the age of eight (2.01; 95% CI: 1.86-2.16).

Conclusion: From 1991 to 2011, overweight and obesity clearly became more prevalent in children from Ljubljana. This trend has been more obvious among boys than girls. In comparison to 14-year-old boys and girls, the highest odds for excessive weight were found below the age of 10.

Exhaled Breath Condensate pH in Adult Croatian Population Without Respiratory Disorders: How Healthy a Population Should Be to Provide Normative Data?

The aim of this study was to obtain preliminary exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH values for healthy adult Croatian subjects, and to evaluate criteria for defining respiratory health of population providing normal EBC pH values in epidemiologic studies. In 109 adults without a history of lower airway symptoms (AS), four groups were described by narrowing the definition of "health" down to 1) without lower AS; 2) without lower and upper AS; 3) without AS, with normal FEV1 and bronchial normoreactivity; 4) without AS, with normal FEV1, bronchial normoreactivity, normal total IgE, and with negative skin prick test. Median EBC pH values did not differ between the groups (7.72, 7.73, 7.73, 7.73), but as health criteria got stricter, we observed a slight, nonsignificant increase in minimal pH values (6.95, 7.10, 7.20, 7.37). Median EBC pH values with interquartile range in the total sample (7.72; 7.63 to 7.76) were within the range previously reported by other authors. They did not differ regarding sex, smoking habit and atopic status, and were not associated with age, FEV1 or total IgE. The non-significant trend in EBC pH observed with stricter criteria of respiratory health and atopic status indicates the need for further research on criteria for defining healthy population in a larger sample.

Normalne i granične vrijednosti mikronukleus-testa na limfocitima periferne krvi u ispitanika opće populacije Republike Hrvatske

Mikronukleus (MN) test na limfocitima periferne krvi jedna je od najvažnijih metoda koje se primjenjuju u citogenetičkom nadzoru. Osnovni preduvjet za primjenu nekog testa u svrhu nadzora profesionalno izloženih populacija jest poznavanje normalnih vrijednosti promatranoga biološkog pokazatelja (biomarkera) u kontrolnoj populaciji. Baze podataka na razini opće populacije moraju se redovito obnavljati novim podacima. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je utvrditi normalne i granične vrijednosti MN-testa na limfocitima periferne krvi 200 zdravih ispitanika obaju spolova iz opće populacije Republike Hrvatske te ispitati koji čimbenici pridonose spontanom nastanku MN. Na razini istražene populacije utvrđeno je prosječno (6,90±3,32) MN (medijan 7 MN), dok je raspon pojedinačnih vrijednosti iznosio 0 do 18 MN u 1000 binuklearnih stanica. Gornja granična vrijednost dobivena izračunavanjem 95. percentila za cjelokupnu promatranu populaciju iznosi 12,5 MN na 1000 limfocita. Utvrđeno je da na spontani nastanak MN utječu spol, dob i navika pušenja. Žene u prosjeku imaju više vrijednosti svih parametara MN-testa od muškaraca, a u njih je bio i naglašeniji porast vrijednosti citogenetičkog nalaza zbog navike pušenja. Kako su literaturni podaci o utjecaju pušenja cigareta na nastanak MN kontradiktorni, planiran je nastavak istraživanja radi razjašnjavanja utjecaja dnevno utrošenog broja cigareta i ukupnog trajanja pušačkog staža na vrijednosti parametara MN-testa. Usporedba rezultata s literaturnim podacima potvrdila je da su dobivene vrijednosti u skladu s vrijednostima MN-testa zabilježenim na općoj populaciji u drugim svjetskim laboratorijima. Normalne i granične vrijednosti MN-testa utvrđene u ovome istraživanju poslužit će kao osnova za usporedbu i tumačenje nalaza MN-testa u ispitanika izloženih populacija te daljnju nadogradnju laboratorijske baze podataka.

Social Classes and Social Mobility in Slovenia and Europe

In closed social systems the social position of an individual is determined by the social position of the family into which he or she was born, whereas in open social systems mobility from one social class to another is possible. This paper concerns the relationship between the class position an individual actually occupies and the class into which he or she was born. First the concept of social class is described and different types of social mobility are presented. Than the research methodology is described and the results are presented and discussed. At the end of the paper certain comparisons to other European countries are made.



Increasing longevity raised the prospect of a workplace for ageing workers. Previous studies reveal that work ability decreases with age, even among the healthy, and decreased significantly with age among women. The aim of the study is to examine the perception of work ability of public sector employees aged 55 years and older and gender differences in three European countries.


A prospective longitudinal study design and standardized “Work Ability Index” (WAI) were used. This study analysed the relationship between ageing, gender, and perceived work ability among 1653 employees aged 45.06±10.90 years (562 men and 1091 women) from Spain, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Monte Negro. The research was conducted in 2018.


Older employees had a better WAI than their younger colleagues (P<0.001). The lowest prevalence rate 20% of excellent WAI was between 35 and 44 years of age. The reduction of WAI in Bosnia and Herzegovina was huge 68%, compared with 30% in Monte Negro (more than 2 times) and 14% in Spain (almost 5 times more).


Gender and age was not protector and predictor of excellent or reduced work ability. Work ability did not decrease with age among women and men, public sector employees. Work ability depends of health and safety, promotion and preventive activities at the workplace.

Intra- and inter-personal factors of psychosocial status in Slovenian military personnel with regard to their traumatic event experience

Problem: The main objectives of this study were to identify differences in the psychosocial status of military personnel who had and who had no traumatic event experience, and to screen for potential mental health vulnerability related to post-traumatic stress.

Methods: 390 military personnel were included in the study, with 103 of them reporting traumatic event experience. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Screening for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, the CAGE instrument, the Eysenck Personality Scales, the Folkman-Lazarus Ways of Coping Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale and self-evaluative questions about important relationships were administered.

Results: The respondents who reported traumatic event experience (TEE) also reported a significantly higher frequency of other stressful events, a significantly more frequent past history of depression (16.5 % of respondents with TEE and 6.2 % of respondents without TEE) and significantly higher risky alcohol drinking; the latter, however, is not higher than the estimate for the total Slovenian population (10.7 % of respondents with TEE and 2.7 % of participants without TEE). Respondents with TEE smoke less frequently than respondents who reported no TEE (46.6 % vs. 60.1 %), and more often rely on self in stressful situations. There was no significant difference between the respondents with reported TEE and those without TEE in their personality traits, coping styles, and self-esteem, or in the majority of job- and family-related factors. No difference was found between male and female personnel as concerns intra-personal factors and in stress-related behaviour.

Conclusions: Intra-personal factors (personality, coping styles, and self-esteem) of military personnel indicate good personal potential for resilience. Stress-related substance (ab)use, especially smoking rates well above the Slovenian average, need further attention. Professional support needs to be promoted, especially in female personnel, who are less likely than men to seek social support in times of stress, and in military personnel exposed to cumulative stressors.

Simptoms of anxiety, depression, anger and sexual concern and the role of some demographic characteristic among slovenian youth: a cross sectional study

Background: There is some evidence that a more elevated level of anxiety and depression is associated with adolescent timing and that depression and anxiety have overlapping symptoms and are conceptually interrelated.

Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the clinical importance and comorbidity rates of some psychological symptoms. The aim was to explore the presence and intensity of the symptoms of anxiety, depression, anger and sexual concern in Slovenian adolescents. The second aim was to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents and the presence of these symptoms. Two hundred and three adolescents between 15 and 20 years of age completed a questionnaire measuring specific symptoms.

Results and conclusions: The results of the current study indicate that depressive and anxiety symptoms were found not to differ by gender, age and socioeconomic status. Girls and boys showed similar profiles of correlations for depressive and anxiety symptoms. High level of depressive symptoms, such a feelings of sadness, unhappiness, and loneliness, were associated with increased symptoms of anxiety among boys and girls and both expressed more sexual concerns as well. Anger, angry thoughts, feelings and behaviour were strongly linked to preoccupation with sexual thoughts or feelings for both boys and girls. The findings extend the current knowledge in this area. Identifying and assessing depression and other symptoms are essential to ensuring access to appropriate treatment.