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Characterization of TiO2 films obtained by a wet chemical process

Abstract

TiO2 has an easily tunable bandgap and a great absorption dye ability being widely used in many fields and in a number of fascinating applications. In this study, a wet chemical route, particularly a sol gel method using spin-coating is adopted to deposit TiO2 thin films onto soda lime glass and silicon substrates. TiO2 films were prepared by using an alcoholic solution of analytical reagent grade TiCl4 as titanium precursor at various experimental conditions. The accent was put on the conditions of preparation (spin time, spin speed, precursor concentration, number of coating layers etc), doping and on the post-deposit treatment namely the drying and the crystallization. The results showed a strong dependence on the drying temperature and on the temperature and duration of the crystallization. We found that the solution preparation and its color are important for getting a reproducible final product. The Raman spectra recorded at room temperature, showed the characteristic peaks of anatase which appear at 143 and around 396 cm−1. These peaks confirm the presence of TiO2.

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify the crystalline characteristic of TiO2 while the chemical states and relative amounts of the main elements existing in the samples were investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology of the samples was visualized by AFM. We show by this work the feasibility to obtain different nanostructured TiO2 by changing the concentration of the solution. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films was evaluated. Rhodamine B is a recalcitrant dye and TiO2 was successfully tested for its oxidation. An abatement of 60% was obtained under sunlight for an initial concentration of 10 mg/l.

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Synthesis of PVDF/SBT composite thin films by spin coating technology and their ferroelectric properties

, dielectric, ferroelectric properties was thoroughly investigated. 2 Experimental 2.1 Materials Both PVDF powders and DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) solvents were supplied from Shanghai Ling Feng Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd. (China). The DMSO solvent was of reagent grade. SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT) nanopowders were self-made. The detailed fabrication process of self-made SBT nanoparticles was described by Panda et al. [ 6 ]. 2.2 Preparation of precursor solutions and thin films The x-SBT/PVDF(x = 0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %) thin films were prepared by a spin-coating

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Controlling of optical band gap of the CdO films by zinc oxide

Abstract

In this study, CdZnO films prepared at different ratios of dopants (CdO:ZnO = 5:5, CdO:ZnO = 6:4, and CdO:ZnO = 8:2) were coated on glass surface by using the sol-gel spin coating technique. After this process, surface structure and optical properties of the CdZnO films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The surface structure of the CdZnO films depended on the content of ZnO and CdO in the films. Low percentage of CdO films were very similar to the ZnO film but higher amount of CdO resuted in granular structures together with pure structure of ZnO in the films. Eg values of produced CdZnOs depended on the additions of CdO and ZnO. The obtained Eg values of the produced CdO:ZnO = 5:5 (S3), CdO:ZnO = 6:4 (S4), and CdO:ZnO = 8:2 (S5) films are 2.5 eV, 2.49 eV, and 2.4 eV, respectively.

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Electrical and optical properties of spin-coated SnO2 nanofilms

Abstract

SnO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been deposited on oxidized silicon substrates by spin-coating from a precursor solution, followed by slow thermal annealing in oxygen atmosphere at different temperatures (500 to 900 °C). The precursor solution consisted of 1.0 to 2.0 M SnCl4·5H2O in isopropanol. It was shown that the concentration of the precursor solution, annealing temperature and heating rate had a significant effect on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the studied thin films. The topography of SnO2 thin films was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, as-deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis and impedance spectroscopy.

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Bulk ZnO nanorod assemblies fabricated by spin coating of organo-precursor gels on CuO nanowires

Abstract

Bulk ZnO nanorod assemblies have been successfully fabricated on CuO nanowires through spin coating of organoprecursor gels. A thin film of CuO nanowires was first generated by direct heating of a metallic Cu-foil at 500 °C in an air atmosphere. A stable colloidal organo-precursor sol synthesized by dissolving equimolar zinc acetate dihydrate and monoethanolamine in 2-methoxyethanol was subsequently repeatedly deposited onto the CuO nanowires by spin coating. The formation of ZnO nanorod assemblies was controlled by varying the number of coatings. The average diameter of the ZnO rods was determined to be ∼600 nm.

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Studies on rheological, structural, optical, electrical and surface properties of LiMn2O4 thin films by varied spin rates

Abstract

LiMn2O4 thin films prepared by cost-effective spin coating method using optimized coating conditions are reported. Spin rate was varied and spin rate dependent properties were studied. Prepared films were characterized for their structural, morphological and optical properties. X-ray diffraction study of LiMn2O4 thin films confirmed the cubic spinel structure with the preferred orientation along (1 1 1) plane. Optical absorption studies showed band gap energy of 3.02 eV for the grown LiMn2O4 films. FT-IR bands assigned to asymmetric stretching modes of MnO6 group were located around 623 cm-1 and 514 cm-1 for the LiMn2O4 thin films. The weak band observed at 437 cm-1 was attributed to the LiO4 tetrahedra. The films showed high conductivity value 0.79 S/cm indicating the generation of effective network of the film for enhanced charge transport. AFM micrographs of the LiMn2O4 films deposited at 3000 rpm and 3500 rpm showed uniform distribution of fine grains throughout the surface without any dark pits, pinholes and cracks.

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Development of sol-gel derived gahnite anti-reflection coating for augmenting the power conversion efficiency of polycrystalline silicon solar cells

Abstract

The present research is focused on developing ZnAl2O4 (gahnite) spinel as an antireflection coating material for enhanced energy conversion of polycrystalline silicon solar cells (PSSC). ZnAl2O4 has been synthesized using dual precursors, namely aluminum nitrate nonahydrate and zinc nitrate hexahydrate in ethanol media. Diethanolamine has been used as a sol stabilizer in sol-gel process for ZnAl2O4 nanosheet fabrication. ZnAl2O4 nanosheet was deposited layer-by-layer (LBL) on PSSC by spin coating method. The effect of ZnAl2O4 coating on the physical, electrical, optical properties and temperature distribution in PSSC was investigated. The synthesized antireflection coating (ARC) material bears gahnite (ZnAl2O4) spinel crystal structure composed of two dimensional (2D) nanosheets. An increase in layer thickness proves the LBL deposition of ARC on the PSSC substrate. The ZnAl2O4 2D nanosheet comprising ARC on the PSSC was tested and it exhibited a maximum of 93 % transmittance, short-circuit photocurrent of 42.364 mA/cm2 and maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) 23.42 % at a low cell temperature (50.2 °C) for three-layer ARC, while the reference cell exhibited 33.518 mA/cm2, 15.74 % and 59.1 °C, respectively. Based on the results, ZnAl2O4 2D nanosheets have been proven as an appropriate ARC material for increasing the PCE of PSSC.

Open access
Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Zinc Sulfide Thin Films Synthesized by Co-Precipitation Method

Abstract

Wide bandgap Zinc Sulfide nanocrystals are prepared by a simple co-precipitation method at different precursor concentrations. The influence of sulphur concentration in Zinc sulfide on morphological, optical and electric properties is found to be significant. The Zinc Sulfide nanomaterial was prepared using low-cost starting materials and deionised water as the solvent. As synthesized Zinc Sulfide nanocrystals were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, UV-Visible Spectrophotometry, Photoluminescence (PL), Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), Ellipsometry techniques and electric conductivity measurements. XRD patterns revealed that ZnS nanocrystals are polycrystalline, cubic phase with (111) preferred orientation. The obtained crystallites have sizes in the range of 5 to 11 nm. EDS pattern confirms the purity of the films. From optical absorption measurements, it is clear that the direct energy gap decreases from 5.2 to 4.4eV with the increase in sulphur concentration in ZnS and exhibit large quantum confinement effect. Ellipsometry was used to determine the optical constants and film thickness. The films deposited on ITO – coated glass was used to record the IV Characteristics of the films by two probe method. The wide-bandgap, conducting materials have applications in optoelectronic devices such as high-frequency UV detectors and thin-film solar cells.

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Screen Printing of SU-8 Layers for Microstructure Fabrication / Ar Sietspiedi Uzklātu SU-8 Pārklājumi Mikro-Struktūru Izgatavošanai

References 1. Gelorme, J.D., Cox, R.J., and Gurrierez, S.A. (1989). Photoresist composition and printed circuit boards and packages made therewith. US4882245A. 2. You, H., and Steck, A.J. (2013). Lightweight electrowetting display on ultrathin glass substrate. Society for Information Display, 21(5), 192-197. 3. MicroChem (2001). SU-8 Negative Tone Photoresist Formulations 50-100, Data sheets. 4. Luurtsema, G.A. (1997). Spin Coating for Rectangular Substrates. University of California

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Structural and optical properties of pure and Ag doped ZnO thin films obtained by sol gel spin coating technique

Abstract

We have investigated the influence of Ag doping on zinc oxide thin films. Pure and Ag doped, preferentially oriented transparent zinc oxide thin films were prepared by sol gel technique on a glass substrate using diethyl amine as a stabilizer. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films with hexagonal wurtzite type structure were polycrystalline in nature with a preferred grain orientation in the 101 direction. The crystallite sizes decreased from 34 nm to 27 nm after silver doping. Both photoluminescence and optical transmission measurements showed that the band gap increased after the Ag doping. The structure and optical characterization studies clearly indicated the incorporation of Ag in ZnO. Hence, the observed increase in the optical band gap and decrease in crystallite size can be directly attributed to the effect of Ag ion incorporation into the ZnO lattice.

Open access