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Introduction: Southern sweet-grass (Hierochloë australis /Schrad./ Roem. et Schult., Poaceae) is a perennial tuft-grass occurring in North-Eastern part of Europe. Its leaves are collected from wild growing plants as an aromatic raw material used in alcohol industry. Due to overharvest, attempts to introduce the plant into cultivation have been undertaken.

Objective: This work aims to assess the influence of southern sweet-grass seeds (spikelets) storage and pre-sowing treatment on their germination and the initial growth of seedlings.

Methods: The seeds were assessed directly after harvest and after 6, 18 and 30 months of storage. The investigated parameters, i.e. 1000 seed weight, moisture content, germinability and viability of seeds (tetrazoline test) were determined according to ISTA.

Results: After 30 months of storage, the germinability of seeds decreased from 42.6 (after harvest) to 4.6% but their viability remained high (70.9%). Stratification, short rinse of stratified seed in H2SO4 and application of KNO3 or GA3 had increased the seeds germination (over 70%).

Conclusion: Southern sweet-grass seeds become dormant shortly after maturing. The improvement of germination requires the application of combined treatments, i.e. stratification, scarification and growth-promoting substances.


Wheat is one of the important cereal crops in Nepal as well as globally. But due to varied climatic and sowing conditions low production has been reported throughout the world including Nepal. Sowing rates are highly correlated to yield and its yield attributing characters. Yield loss has been reported 50-62% under a late sown condition which shows a heavy threat to food security problems. Vijaya is the most recommended varieties under late sown conditions due to its high yield and less threat to late sown conditions. Thus identification and release of varieties suitable under late sown conditions are of the utmost importance. Researches should be accelerated under different agro-ecological zones to study the constraints associated with late sown wheat in Nepal.


In the years 2009 and 2010, studies were carried out on Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium population established in the cultivated fields of the Wigry National Park and its buffer zone. Every year, 30 plants of the Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium were picked and collected from each of the three habitats: potato fields, winter and spring cereals. The following traits were examined: plant height, stem length to the first branching, number of internodes and their length, number of first-order branches and their length, number of leaves, number of spikelet-like inflorescences (spikelets) and their average length, the top inflorescence (spikelet) length, seed number per plant and 1000-seed weight. The analysis of the obtained results indicated large morphological variability of plants, which depended on the type of cultivated land. The most favourable conditions for weed growth and development occurred in potato fields, where Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium plants were the highest, most branched and productive. The opposite result was noticed in winter cereals, where Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium managed to produce the least seeds. Comparisons of the results of morphological measurements for Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium taken in the same sites during two growing seasons demonstrated relatively small variation of the analysed traits.


Water stress experienced by a wheat crop during growth is recognized to have accumulative effect stated as a decline in total biomass over well water potential. The yield and nutrient uptake performance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Pirsabak-2013 and Atta Habib) to foliar feeding of 2% potassium (K) at three various growth phases (Zadoks GS-22, Zadoks GS-60 and Zadoks GS-73) was explored under water restricted environment in a wire house trial at the Agriculture Research Station, Harichand, Charsadda. The target was to find out the preeminent K application stage for enhancement in the drought tolerance potential. Drought stress was generated by suppression of irrigation at the three growth phases and then K was sprayed with the carboxymethyl cellulose as a sticking agent, however Tween-20 was used as a surfactant for foliar spray. Data about several agronomic characters (plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plant) of crop were documented via standard techniques. Moreover, at maturity, aboveground nitrogen, phosphorus, K, sodium and calcium uptakes by the crop were determined. The results point out that drought stress at all three acute growth phases unfavorably affected plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and nutrient uptake of the wheat plant. The exogenous K application under drought stress at all three acute growth phases boosted tolerance of wheat by decreasing noxious nutrient’s uptake and augmenting the yield and yield characters. In this concerns, both varieties exposed undeviating behavior. Extreme enhancement in all the documented yield parameters and nutrients uptake was attained when K was practiced at grain filling stage of both varieties.

Seed accessions were collected in Lithuania, Latvia and North West Ukraine. A total of 100 wild populations of Agrostis capillaris were investigated and compared under the same conditions at the Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, during the period 2006-2012. The populations were assessed for the following traits: 1000 seed weight, seed weight per plant, plant height, panicle length, spikelet length, vegetative leaf length, leaf width, and beginning of inflorescence emergence. The coefficient of variation of individual traits (beginning of inflorescence emergence, spikelet length) was not high. The variation of other traits (1000 seed weight, plant height, panicle length, leaf width) was moderate. The variation of seed weight per plant was the highest, the variation coefficient of this trait ranged from 43.3% for the Lithuanian populations to 71.6 % for the Ukrainian populations. However, the averaged values of the tested traits did not significantly differ between the countries, except for the inflorescence emergence date. As a result, it is not expedient to discriminate the genetic resources of Agrostis capillaris according to geographic criterion. It can be inferred that because of the rather high variation of individual traits, wild populations of Agrostis capillaris can be successfully used in turf grass breeding.


Two field experiments were carried out in two successive seasons to examine the effect of weed management on wheat crop under saline condition and how herbicides can interact with foliar application with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to improve weed suppression and enhance crop growth and productivity under salinity stress. Clodinafop-propargyl was the best option to attain acceptable grassy weeds control. Increasing IAA from 0 up to 150 ppm significantly increased number and dry weight of grassy weeds in wheat after 80 days from sowing. Application of IAA at 150 ppm recorded the highest number and dry weight of weeds. Clodinafop-propargyl produced the lowest values of number and dry weight of weeds as well as nutrients uptake by weeds when water spraying was added. While application of IAA at 150 ppm gave the maximum values of flag leaf area, SPAD meter values, number of spike/m2, spike length, number of spikelets/spike, grains number/spike, grains weight/spike, as well as grain, straw, and total crude protein, phosphorus and potassium percentages when clodinafop-propargyl treatment was applied. It could be concluded that using IAA at 150 ppm resulted in enhancement of growth and productivity of wheat crop when integrated with clodinafop-propargyl treatment under salinity condition.


In order to evaluate several agro-morphological traits in 21 spring bread wheat genotypes, an experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out in two locations during three years (2008-2011). The traits including grain yield (GY), biological yield (BY), spike weight (SW), grain weight per spike(GWS), harvest index (HI), spike length (SL), spikelet per spike (SPS), number of grain per spike (NGS), number of spike per square meter (SPM), 1000-grain weight (GW), plant height (PH), stem straw weight (SSW), spike straw weight (SRW) were evaluated. The result of combined analysis of variance revealed that years, genotypes and their interaction effects were significant for all the traits. Location had significant difference for all the traits except SL and SPS. GY was significant correlated with BY (0.72**), SW (0.75**), GWS (0.69**), NGS (0.59**), SSW (0.62**) and SRW (0.66**). Factor analysis was used for understanding the data structure and trait relations. The factor analysis divided the thirteen traits into three factors. The cumulative variation for these factors was 0.76 and also it’s portions for factor one to three were 0.59, 0.16 and 0.06, respectively. In the first factor, the traits including GY, BY, SW, GWS, SPS, NGS and SSW had high factor loadings. The traits compromise HI, SSW and SRW had high factor loadings in second factor and also SPM, GW and PH had high values of factor loadings in third factor. The genotypes including Morvarid, N-80-19 and N-85-14 had high mean values of grain yield. The genotypes had high genetic coefficient variation for SRW, BY, SW and GY, therefore the efficiency of selection of the genotypes for improving these traits will be high.


The decorative value of 24 fescue (Festuca trachyphylla) ecotypes from natural habitats in the Lublin region was assessed in the years 2004-2011. Plants with desirable ornamental characteristics were selected and the cuttings were planted in experimental plots in the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Botanical Garden in Lublin, where they grew in uniform habitat conditions. During the study years, 18 morphological traits that determine the decorative value of grasses were analysed; 11 quantitative traits (length and number of the culm, length of the panicle, number of spikelets in the panicle, number of vegetative stems, length, width and thickness of the leaf blade, length and width of the cauline leaf and diameter of the tuft) and seven qualitative traits (plant growth habit, greenness index of the leaf blade [SPAD], winter greenness, culm colour, waxy coating on the leaf blade, flowering periods and plant condition after 8 years). The analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits demonstrated that F. trachyphylla is a morphologically variable species. The variability is mainly manifested in the inflorescence morphology, length of the leaf blades and number of culms, which have been statistically corroborated by the results of the ANOVA analysis. A considerable degree of variability was also exhibited by plant habit, colour of leaves and culm, wax deposits on the leaves and flowering period. The high morphological variability of this species allowed for the selection of two interesting types among the plant individuals studied, which were characterised by desirable decorative traits. The most decorative features of the selected ecotypes include the shape and colour of the leaves and the plant habit.

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