-based function like in eq. (1) allows the estimation of the values for the four Cole parameters.
C EBI Measurements and Descriptive Statistics
Right side 4-electrode wrist-to-ankle EBI spectroscopymeasurements have been taken in five healthy volunteers. The EBIS measurements were performed with the SFB7 bioimpedance spectrometer manufactured by Impedimed ltd. using repositionable Red Dot Ag/AgCl electrodes manufactured by 3M. The frequency range of performed EBI measurements was 3.096 to 1000 kHz and 100 complex EBI spectroscopymeasurements were obtained for each of
S.H. Jabarov, V.B. Aliyeva, T.G. Mammadov, A.I. Mammadov, S.E. Kichanov, L.S. Dubrovinsky, S.S. Babayev, E.G. Pashayeva and N.T. Dang
Raman spectroscopy measurements of a monoclinic layered semiconductor TlGaSe2were performed in a pressure range up to 10.24 GPa. The pressure-induced first-order phase transition accompanied by reconstruction of the layer structure was observed at the pressure P ~ 0.9 GPa. The mode-Grüneisen parameters of intralayer bonds were calculated for TlGaSe2. The contribution of thermal expansion to temperature changes of phonon frequencies was defined. The type of intralayer bonds and their pressure transformation were analyzed in layered TlGaSe2. It was shown that the nature of intramolecular forces in molecular crystals and intralayer forces in layered GaS, GaSe and TlGaSe2is similar
The paper presents a simple way to improve the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide using mechanochemical method. The TiO2 (Anatase) powders was subjected to high-energy ball milling in dry environment and in methanol. It has been shown that it is possible to induce the phase transformation from Anatase to Rutile and produce a material with a higher photocatalytic activity in the UV light. Physicochemical characteristics of the products were based on the following methods and techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), IR and UV-Vis (DR) spectroscopy, measurements of specific surface area (BET). The photocatalytic activity of the powders was measured in the decomposition reaction of methyl orange in water.
M. Kowalska, K. Fabisiak, A. Wrzyszczyński, A. Banaszak, M. Szybowicz, K. Paprocki, W. Bała and F. Bylicki
Diamond electrodes of different morphologies and qualities were manufactured by hot filament chemical deposition (HF CVD) techniques by changing the parameters of diamond growth process. The estimation of diamond quality and identification of different carbon phases was performed by Raman spectroscopy measurements. The effect of diamond quality and amorphous carbon phase content on the electrochemical response of an obtained diamond electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 as supporting electrolyte was investigated by cyclic voltammetry with [Fe(CN)6]4−/3− as a redox probe. The kinetic parameters such as catalytic reaction rate constant k0 and electron transfer coefficient α were determined. The obtained results show that the analytical performance of undoped diamond electrodes can be implemented just by the change of diamond layers quality.
Arsia Khanfekr, Morteza Tamizifar and Rahim Naghizadeh
NbxO3 compounds (with x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) were synthesized by rotary-hydrothermal (RH) method. The process was conducted at 180 °C for 5 hours in a Teflon vessel that was rotated at a speed of 160 rpm during the hydrothermal reaction. The effects of donor concentration on the structure and properties of BaTi1−x
NbxO3 compounds were investigated. The experiments for the BaTiO3±Nb2O3 system produced by a solid state reaction at high temperature at different concentrations of niobium, with the use of RH processing have not been reported in previous works. For the phase evolution studies, X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) were analyzed and Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images were taken for the detailed analysis of the grain size, surface and morphology of the compound.
Renata Kabacińska, Janusz Winiecki, Krzysztof Przegiętka, Mirosław Szybowicz, Kazimierz Fabisiak and Kazimierz Paprocki
Thermally stimulated luminescence (TL), cathodoluminescence (CL) and Raman spectroscopy of CVD diamond films grown on silicon substrates have been studied in order to obtain information on defects created during the growth, which induce the levels within the gap. TL between 300 K and 700 K, and CL from 200 nm to 1200 nm have been teasured. The glow curves show a peak located around 610 K with different intensities, depending on the sample thickness, associated with a trap of energy, equal to 0.83 eV and with attempt-to-escape-time of the order of 108 s-1. Broad CL bands observed at 428±1 nm (2.90 ±0.01 eV) and 500±1 nm (2.47±0.004 eV) are attributed to closely spaced and widely separated donor-acceptor (D-A) pairs, respectively. The TL and CL results were correlated with diamond quality estimated from Raman spectroscopy measurements.
A. Ciżman, J. Komar, T. Marciniszyn, R. Poprawski, E. Rysiakiewicz-Pasek and A. Sieradzki
NH4H2PO4 nano-composite antiferroelectric materials in porous glass have been studied by means of dielectric and dilatometric investigations. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements in a wide frequency range are reported here for the first time, for both the antiferro- and paraelectric phases of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) embedded in a porous matrix. Low frequency relaxation processes above the phase transition temperature were shown to occur. An investigation of the thermal expansion revealed a negative volume jump at the phase transition point. It was found that the phase transition temperature in ADP crystals embedded in porous glass decreased with the decrease of the mean pore size. The experimentally observed shift of the phase transition temperature is caused by a combination of size and pressure effects.
Mohammad Abu Haija, Georgia Basina, Fawzi Banat and Ahmad I. Ayesh
Spinel ferrite nanoparticles in the form CuFe2O4 were tested for gas sensing applications. Nanoparticles pressed in a disk form were used to construct conductometric gas sensors. The disk was placed between two electrical electrodes wherein the top electrode had a grid structure. The produced sensors were tested against H2S and H2 gases and they were found to be selective and sensitive to H2S concentration as low as 25 ppm. The composition of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The crystal structure was verified by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The observations obtained from the experiments demonstrated the high potential of using CuFe2O4 nanoparticles for H2S sensing applications.
Magdalena Zdybel, Barbara Pilawa, Ewa Buszman, Dorota Wrzesniok, Ryszard Krzyminiewski and Zdzislaw Kruczynski
Continuous microwave saturation of EPR spectra of melanin complexes at different temperatures
Paramagnetic centers in DOPA-melanin and complexes of DOPA-melanin with netilmicin and Cu(II) were studied by the use of an X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Measurements of continuous microwave saturation of EPR spectra at temperatures: 125 K, 175 K, 225 K, 275 K, were performed. Homogeneous broadening of all the examined EPR spectra was observed. EPR spectra of DOPA-melanin-Cu(II) complexes saturated at higher microwave powers than the others tested melanin samples. Fast spin-lattice relaxation exists in DOPA-melanin-Cu(II) complexes. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in melanin's paramagnetic centers of DOPA-melanin and its complexes with netilmicin, and its complexes with both netilimicin and Cu(II). EPR spectra of all the tested samples saturated at higher microwave powers with increasing of the measuring temperature. Faster spin-lattice relaxation processes occurs in DOPA-melanin and its complexes with netilmicin and Cu(II) at higher temperature.
J. Karczewski, T. Miruszewski, B. Bochentyn and B. Kusz
Impedance spectroscopy measurements in various gas atmospheres were carried out in order to explain the doubts about the type of carriers and the mechanism of electrical conductivity in Bi-Si-O and Pb-Si-O glasses. In bismuth silicate glass, a typical ionic conductivity with oxygen ions as charge carriers was observed. The level of electrical conductivity of the glass at 400 °C was 5 × 10-8 S·cm-1, with the activation energy of 1.3 eV and was independent of measuring atmosphere. In the case of lead silicate glasses, the conductivity changed with measuring atmosphere. Two types of charge carriers: oxygen ions and proton ions were postulated. Proton conductivity measured in wet argon at temperature 400 °C was estimated at the level of 4 × 10-8 S·cm-1 while the oxygen ions conductivity in such conditions was 78 × 10-8 S·cm-1. We suggest that both types of charge carriers are transported along the same conduction paths using oxygen defects in the glass structure.