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international taekwondo athletes, respectively. Cooke et al. (1997) stated that athletes with VO2max close to 55.0 and 65.0 ml/kg/min (women and men, respectively) were in a better position to win an Olympic medal. These authors recommended intensive aerobic training to optimize athletes’ aerobic conditioning, using VO2max as an indicator of cardiovascular fitness and aerobic endurance. However, this presents a major challenge as in order to measure oxygen uptake or improve aerobic fitness in taekwondo athletes, specific types of assessments and workouts are required. The

-Wesley Longman. Angleitner, A., & Demtröder, A. I. (1988). Acts and dispositions: A reconsideration of the Act frequency approach. European Journal of Personality, 2, 121-141. doi: 10.1002/per.2410020207 Baer, J. (1998). The case for domain-specificity of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 173-177. Baer, J. (2012). Domain specificity and the limits of creativity theory. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 46(1), 16-29. doi: 10.1002/jocb.002 Baer, J. (2013). Teaching for Creativity: Domains and Divergent Thinking, Intrinsic


Objective: To evaluate and demonstrate the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in thyroid lesions in our department and to highlight probable causes of errors leading to unsatisfactory sampling, which may depend on the characteristics of the nodule.

Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted on 319 diagnosed cases of thyroid nodules referred to the Surgery Unit of Puls hospital, Tîrgu Mureș in the January 2014 – December 2015 period, who underwent fine-needle aspiration. Histological examination was considered to be the gold standard; therefore we compared the cytological diagnosis with the histological one.

Results: Of the 319 cases, 289 (90.6%) were female and 30 (9.4%) male patients; 210 cases (69.3%) were interpreted as benign, 46 cases (15.2%) as follicular lesion of undetermined significance, 4 cases (1.3%) as suspect for malignancy, 1 case (0.3%) as malignant sampling, and 42 cases (13.9%) as unsatisfactory. We compared the results of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with the corresponding histopathological results (49 in total). FNAC achieved a sensitivity of 76.47%, a specificity of 83.1%, a positive predictive value of 35.1%, a negative predictive value of 96.7%, a false positive rate of 16.9%, a false negative rate of 23%, and an overall accuracy of 82.3%.

Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrate the accuracy of the FNA technique in the first-line diagnosis of thyroid nodules.

Measuring Specificities of Dissipation Factor of Electrical Equipment in Substations

Measuring techniques of dielectric losses tanδ of high voltage equipment are discussed and compared in this paper. There are several methods for determining tanδ and capacitance values in high voltage substation on site.

Simple measuring methods like GST and UST can be put into practice without result corrections in ideal conditions. However electrical field in substation originates negative affect on measuring results, therefore different connection schemes of measuring methods have to be used.


Background: Genetic screening for chromosomopathy is performed in the first trimester of pregnancy by determining fetal nuchal translucency (NT), and the pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free human chorionic gonadotropin (free-beta HCG) biomarkers in maternal serum. Methods: We tested the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative expected values of each marker with the aim of setting a model for prenatal screening readings. Statistical data treatment has been performed on a sample of 340 pregnant women with positive results of prenatal screening. Results: Sensitivity of PAPP-A was 0.6250 (probability 62.50%), free beta HCG 0.5893 (58.93%), NT 0.1785 (17.85%). Specificity of PAPP-A was 0.5106 (probability 51.06%), free beta HCG 0.5246 (52.46%), NT 0.9718 (97.18%). Positive expected value of PAPP-A was 0.2011 (probability 20.11%), free beta HCG 0.1964 (19.64%), NT 0.556 (55.56%). Negative expected value of PAPP-A was 0.8735 (probability 87.35%), free beta HCG 0.8662 (86.62%), NT 0.8571 (85.71%). The NT marker has a significantly higher specificity, which means that its normal value will significantly reduce the final risk of trisomy 21. The sensitivity of NT is much lower than that of biochemical markers, which means that a pathological value of NT does not have a significant influence on the final risk, i.e. the significantly higher sensitivity of biochemical markers will reduce the final risk of trisomy 21. Conclusion: The analyses stress the importance of using a software which has the possibility to separate the level of a biochemical risk by correlating PAPP-A and free beta HCG and, by adding the NT marker, calculate the level of a final risk of Down syndrome.

categorical variables, while quantitative values were presented as mean ± standard deviation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of each of the indices PSR and RLAR for the diagnosis of PHG were calculated by taking EGD as gold standard. Results A total of 111 newly diagnosed patients with cirrhosis undergoing screening endoscopy were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 44 ± 12.61 years, and other average clinical parameter were also estimated and shown in Table 1

validation of the data collection methods and a possibility that the sensitivity and specificity of approaches to ascertain HAIs in some participating hospitals were less than optimal. Ten years later, in 2011, the second Slovenian national HAIs prevalence survey (SNHPS) was conducted ( 5 ). The agreed standard methodology for the European point prevalence survey of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute-care hospitals (EUPPS) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was used ( 6 ). The estimated proportion of patients with at


The significance of different species of freshwater gastropods in transmission of polyxenic trematode species on the territory of Ukrainian Polissya is reviewed, with emphasis on instances of the specificity of trematode parthenogenetic generations to their mollusk hosts. For some hosts of polyhostal trematode parthenitae, the leading part in sustaining the local and regional populations of certain trematode species is confirmed. Groups of the common hosts also play an important role in circulation of these helminthes. In adverse conditions, populations of some trematode species can persist using the secondary and subsidiary hosts. Th e rare and accidental hosts of certain trematode species do not have a significant effect on their transmission.

, 24(1), 15-21. King, A. M., Adams, M. J., Carstens, E. B., & Lefkowitz, E. J. (2011). Virus taxonomy: ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier/ Academic Press. San Diego. 835-849pp. Luo, W. H., Zhang, Y. F., Shen, K. F., Cao, L., & Yang, R., L Y. (2013). Analysis of specific genetic variation of CSBV in Chongqing China. Chinese Journal of Biologicals, 26(3), 315-323. Ma, M. X., Li, M., Yuan, C. Y., Li, P. F., Zhang, Y. B., Su, Y. H., & Qu, Z. Y. (2010). Development of a RT-PCR method for determination of Chinese sacbrood virus

, A. L., Waqas, M., Hamayun, M., Al-Harrasi, A., Al-Rawahi, A., Lee, I. J. (2013), Cosynergism of endophyte Penicillium resedanum LK6 with salicylic acid helped Capsicum annuum in biomass recovery and osmotic stress mitigation. BMC Microbiology 13(51). DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-51. [22] Gange, A. C., Dey, S., Currie, A. F., Sutton, B. C. (2007), Site- and species-specific differences in endophyte occurrence in two herbaceous plants. J. Ecol. 95(4), 614-622. [23] Choi, Y. W., Hyde, K. D., Ho, W. H. (1999), Single spore isolations of fungi. Fungal Divers. 3, 29