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Antropogenically Created Forest Edge in the Starohorské Vrchy Mts. on the Example of Donovaly Village
Forest edges represent specific elements forming the character of landscape. They are very important factors in ecological stability. To know and to understand them as a part of dynamic and hierarchic structure in vertical and horizontal shaping of the landscape contributes to understanding of the processes between forest and non-forested landscape in connection to influence of ecological factors towards broad knowledge of the country in the shape of its utilization and monitoring of its dynamic changes. The aim of the paper is to analyze in a geographic sense the types of anthropic forest edges in the area of Starohorské vrchy Mts. (on the example of Donovaly village) and their partial geographic synthesis in the frame of chosen attributes and forest edge functions. Basic question is whether human activity influences the dynamics of environmental variables, its structure, taxonomic diversity and other attributes of forest edges.
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The sediment sequence from Budzewo (Skaliska Basin, north-eastern Poland) contains cladoceran records beginning from the early Holocene. A total of 33 Cladocera taxa were identified in the entire sequence. The cladoceran fauna of the initial stage of palaeolake history in the Preboreal shows high similarity to early Holocene Estonian and Scandinavian records. Benthic Alonella nana was dominant at that time. After that, probably during the Boreal and early Atlantic periods, Cladocera species diversity increased and planktonic forms (bosminas) became dominant, pointing to a rise of water level. The species composition indicates that the lake was meso- to eutrophic. The lake began to shallow during the middle Atlantic. The process was completed in the Subboreal and the lake transformed into a bog. The fall in water level and finally the terrestrialization of the lake is correlated with similar processes recorded in other sediment sequences in northern Poland, suggesting that this event may have been driven by regional factors such as lower precipitation.
In order to assess the environmental indicator potential of wasp nests and termite mounds, the palynomorph content of three randomly selected Macrotermes sp. mounds (termitaria) and two Vespula vulgaris nests collected on the University of Lagos campus were examined. Palynological analysis showed the presence of 298 well-preserved palynomorphs showing characteristic morphological features. The recovered palynomorphs included pollen, pteridophyte spores and fungal spores, along with insect parts (106), diatoms (7) and a protist (1). The pollen assemblage of termite mounds comprised 78 pollen and pteridophyte spores, with Poaceae and Arecaceae pollen as dominants. In the wasp nest the pollen assemblage comprised 28 pollen and spore taxa, with Poaceae and Arecaceae pollen also dominant. Both mounds and nests had, besides diatoms, six pollen and spore taxa: Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Pteridophyte spores, Arecaceae, Raffia sp. and Rhizophora sp. Vegetational grouping of the recovered pollen and spores indicated five phytoecological groups: secondary forest, mangrove swamp forest, freshwater, open vegetation and Poaceae. In statistical analyses, termite mounds had a higher species richness value (2.08 as compared to 1.99 from the wasp nests), while the wasp nests had a higher species diversity value (0.997 as compared to 0.845 from the termite mounds). Pollen analyses of the termite mounds and wasp nests suggest that both could be useful tools in environmental studies. This is the first attempt to evaluate the potential of termite mounds and wasps nest as natural pollen accumulators in Nigeria. The results suggest new possibilities for the use of the pollen records preserved in termite mounds and wasp nests for environmental studies.
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