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Summary Statistics Tables. R package version 5.2. . [45] LUR – Land use registry. 2015. Zbirka geostatističnih podatkov [Collection of geostatistic data, dataset]. Accessed February 7, 2016. [46] OG RS. (2004). Decree on special protection areas (Natura 2000 areas). Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia no. 49/2004. . Accessed 31 Dec 2017 (In Slovene). [47] PanEuropean Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (2018). . Accessed 7 August 2019. [48] R Core

References Bengtssona J, Nilssonb SG, France A, Menozzid P 2000: Biodiversity, disturbances, ecosystem function and management of European forests. Forest Ecology and Management 132: 39–50. Chamberlain DE, Fuller RJ, Bunce RGH, Duckworth JC & Shrubb M 2000: Changes in the abundance of farmland birds in relation to the timing of agricultural intensification in England and Wales. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 771–788. Chavko J & Maderič B 2009: Program starostlivosti Chráneného vtáčieho územia Sysľovské polia 2010 – 2019 [Management plan of Special Protection Area


In 2009, in the Special Protection Area Natura 2000 ‘Grądy Odrzańskie’ in Czernica and Siechnice counties, Wrocław district, 95 breeding bird species were recorded. For 33 of them, maps of distribution of their breeding pairs are presented and for the remaining a relative abundance was estimated based on line transect method. In 2009, the following species were recorded in the study area for the first time: Cygnus olor, Crex crex, Upupa epops, and Picus canus. On the other hand, 11 species recorded in 1978-87 as breeding in the study area (Ciconia nigra, Pernis apivorus, Milvus migrans, Milvus milvus, Falco tinnunculus, Gallinago gallinago, Limosa limosa, Tringa totanus, Riparia riparia, Anthus campestris, Phoenicurus phoenicurus) were not recorded again in 2009. It has been shown that Saxicola torquata, Ficedula albicollis, Corvus corax and Remiz pendulinus have increased in numbers. The following species recorded in 2009 as breeding in the the study area: Cygnus olr, Ciconia ciconia, Circus aeruginosus, Crex crex, Alcedo atthis, Dryocopus martius, Picus canus, Dendrocopos medius, Lulula arborea, Sylvia nisoria, Ficedula albicollis, Lanius collurio and Emberiza hortulana are included in Annex 1 of the Bird Directive.

kartogr. Kovář, P., (2007). Landscape protection and planning at the hydrological "Roof of Europe" (Danube-Odra-Elbe river catchments). Novitatis Bot. Univ. Carol., 18/2007: 7-13. Kubec, J., (2002). Navrhované parametry vodní cesty Dunaj - Odra - Labe a splavnost řek, které má propojit. Vodní cesty a plavba, 4:33-44. Maděra, P., (2001). Response of floodplain forest communities herb layer to changes in the water regime. Biológia (Bratislava), 56:1:63-72. Machar, I., (2007). The strategic environment assessment in Special Protection Areas. Zprávy MOS 65/66: 4-8. Machar

outbreaks in Europe: dynamics and damage, 207–223. In: Singleton GR, Belmain S, Brown PR & Hardy B (eds.), Rodent outbreaks: ecology and impacts, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, 289. Jacob J, Manson P, Barfknecht R & Fredricks T 2013: Common vole ( Microtus arvalis ) ecology and management: implications for risk assessment of plant protection products. Pest Management Science 70(6): 869–878. Karaska D, Trnka A, Krištín A & Ridzoň J 2015: Chránené vtáčie územia Slovenska. [Special protection areas of Slovakia] Štátna ochrana prírody SR


In this study the medicinal plants of some representative vegetation types from a human-modified Eastern European landscapes were investigated. The studied territory is part of a Special Protection Area for bird species. The following sampling areas were included in the study: humid grasslands; mountain hay meadows; semi-natural dry grasslands; Sub-pannonic steppic grasslands; fringe communities of mesothermophilic forest edges; grey willow scrubs; thickets of willow; forests of white willow; hornbeam-beech, oak-hornbeam, and sessile oak forests; scrubs of blackthorn and hawthorn; Subcontinental peri-Pannonic scrubs. The ordering of medicinal plants on the basis of presence/absence data and the abundance data presented the grouping in the following typical communities: to the deciduous forests, to the coppices and scrubs, and to the grasslands and meadows. A total of 208 medicinal plants were found from which 37 species are included in the European Pharmacopoeia, and 13 in the Romanian Pharmacopoeia. The existing list of medicinal plants of the Niraj Valley in the scientific literature was completed with 33 taxa. The medicinal plants containing tannins (18.93%) were in higher percentage followed by those with essential oils (10.68%), flavonoids (10.68%), saponins (9.71%), alkaloids (7.77%), mucilages (6.80%), coumarins (5.34%). However rational (sustainable) exploitation of these natural resources is necessary.


In 2010-2013, 528 samples of surface sediments were collected from the profundal zone of lakes to determine concentrations of phosphorus, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Na and S, as well as trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) using the ICP-OES method. Additionally, Hg concentration (by the TMA method) and organic carbon concentration (using the coulometric titration method) were also determined. Phosphorus concentration was found to range from 0.005 to 1.925% (0.109% on average). High phosphorus concentrations in sediments were reported in lakes located within and around urban areas, in lakes on which recreation centres and leisure facilities are situated, and in lakes adjoining special protection areas of birds. The phosphorus concentration in sediments shows a clear correlation with the contents of Al, Fe, Mn, S and TOC, which indicates the presence of phosphorus in both organic and inorganic forms. It also correlates with the contents of most of the trace elements examined for this study, including Zn, Hg and Pb. A certain regional variability was found; water sediments of lakes in the Masurian and Pomeranian lakelands, located in the area covered by the Pomeranian phase ice sheet, are characterised by a slightly higher phosphorus concentration compared with those from the Greater Poland Lakeland situated in the area of the Poznań phase glaciation.


Food supply in the nesting territories of species has a key role to the species diet composition and their breeding success. Red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus) preys predominantly on larger insect species with a supplementary portion of smaller vertebrates. In the breeding periods 2014 and 2016 their food supply, focusing on Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla, was analysed at five historical nesting sites of the species in Slovakia. Preference for these prey groups in the diet was also studied at the last active nesting site in this country. Overall we recorded 45 Orthoptera species (of which 23 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon), one species of Mantodea, 10 species of Rodentia (of which 2 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon) and 5 species of the Eulipotyphla order in the food supply. With regard to the availability of the falcons' preferred food, in both years the most suitable was the Tvrdošovce site, which continuously showed the greatest range and abundance of particular species. In the interannual comparison the insects showed lower variability in abundance than the small mammals. In 2014 the growth of the common vole (Microtus arvalis) population culminated and with the exception of a single site (Bodza) a slump in abundance was recorded in 2016. In comparing the diet composition with the food supply at the last Slovak breeding site Rusovce (Special Protection Area Sysľovské polia), we recorded significant preference for grasshopper Caliptamus italicus (in 2014), common vole (in 2016) and cricket Tettigonia viridissima (in both years) in the falcons' diet. They did not prey on the Apodemus sylvaticus species belonging among the abundant small mammal species in that locality. Conservation measures in the agricultural landscape are discussed in relation to homogeneous red-footed falcon breeding territories.


Collisions and electrocutions on power lines are known to kill large numbers of birds annually on a global scale. We conducted comprehensive research focused on bird mortality caused by 22 kV and 110 kV distribution power lines in 13 Special Protection Areas in Slovakia. In the period between December 2014 and February 2016, 6,235 km of power lines were inspected twice during two periods (12/2014–03/2015 and 04/2015–02/2016) of field survey. In addition an intensive study was conducted during the second field survey at one-month intervals on power lines identified as the most dangerous for birds to collide with. As a result, 4,353 bird carcasses and bird remains representing 84 bird species and 14 orders were identified. Electrocution was suspected for 76.72% and collision for 23.28% of fatalities. Raptors were associated with 40% of all identified victims of electrocution. Two peaks of incidence were recorded, the first in March with a high rate of electrocutions as well as collisions of swans, pheasants, common blackbirds, ducks and herons, and the second in September predominantly featuring electrocution of raptors, magpies and corvids. We were unable to quantify seasonal patterns of mortality due to the limited sample of repeated mortality surveys resulting from the large grid of inspected power lines. We conducted comprehensive statistical analysis of more than 100 configurations of pylons and calculated their potential risk towards birds. Strong spatial correlation was revealed in the data set. Metal branch pylons and corner pylons with exposed jumper wires passing over the supporting insulators above the cross arms were the most dangerous configuration, accounting for 34.72% of total recorded electrocution fatalities (0.13 carcass/pylon). Cases of electrocution were also recorded for two bird species of major conservation concern in Slovakia: saker falcon (Falco cherrug) and eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca). The results of this study may substantially improve conservation management and policies needed to reduce bird mortality.


The Natura 2000 concept and wetlands protection are relatively new for Romania and Bulgaria, because they are former communist countries and, after the 1990s, had too little value placed on nature conservation in favour of infrastructure development and agriculture. The development of the European ecological network Natura 2000 on these territories has come as an obligation for accession of these countries to The European Union on 01.01.2007.

During the period 2006-2009 I made an analysis for the management of protected areas along the Danube Green Corridor, between Romania and Bulgaria, especially for wetlands, similar to the results of the WWF Germany project “Lower Danube - Green Corridor (LDGC): Freshwater protected area management and freshwater restoration in Bulgaria, Romania and trans-boundary conservation along the Lower Danube”. To have a complete view of the situation of the protected areas management between Romania and Bulgaria, along the Lower Danube Green Corridor, and the perspectives for the next years, I carried out some evaluation for more than 20 Natura 2000 sites, which are alike in many ways, such as: the object of protection (Sites of Community Importance, SCI, under the Habitats Directive; Special Protection Areas for birds, SPAs, under the Birds Directive; natural protected areas of national importance for these two countries, or other natural and semi natural areas with the potential to be protected), human activities, pressures and threats, and other aspects.

Later, I used these results to make a comparative analysis of the Cernica area (Ilfov County, Romania), to add another argument to include it in the Natura 2000 Network from Romania, as ROSPA0122 Cernica Lake and Forest.

This analysis showed that Cernica faces approximately the same pressures and threats as other protected areas and has almost the same efficiency in management planning as the highest assessed Natura 2000 SPAs, respectively Iezer-Călăraşi in Romania and Srebarna of Bulgaria, which is an argument to establish this area as a Natura 2000 site.