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Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The main goal of the article is to prove the impact of the Wałbrzych Special Economic Zone (WSSE) “Invest Park” on the development of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration region.

Materials and methods: The research carried out in 2017-2018 involved three groups of respondents: Wałbrzych Agglomeration residents, entrepreneurs and local government authorities. The study was supplemented with the information from WSSE “Invest Park”.

Results: For all three groups of respondents, WSSE “Invest Park” plays an important role in the development of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration. Its creation had the greatest impact on reducing the unemployment rate and also on improving the infrastructure. It is also important that WSSE top many rankings, gaining the first position as one of the best investment areas.

Conclusions: Establishing the WSSE in the area of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration has had a significant impact on the development of the region. This development is visible in the activities undertaken in the zone, attracting investors and creating new investment areas.

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-1054. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84910128544&partnerID=40&md5=30cdb94c178f6643b305c4c69e5c9fe0 Hsu, M.-S., Lai, Y.-L., & Lin, F.-J. (2013). Effects of Industry Clusters on Company Competitiveness: Special Economic Zones in Taiwan. Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies, 16(3), 1350017. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219091513500173 Ingstrup, M. B., & Damgaard, T. (2011). Cluster Facilitation from a Cluster Life Cycle Perspective. IMP 2011 Conference, 21(4), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2012.722953 Koszarek, M. (2014

are needed to supplement the existing economic structure. Free (special) economic zones may be considered as sites for new factories based on V and VI technological modes. Innovative infrastructure will expand by industrial sites being established to create high-tech industries based on the High-Tech Park (HTP), Great Stone Industrial Park, the National Science and Technology Park in nano-industry, bio-industry and pharmaceutical industry, and a network of 19 regional scientific technology parks (technoparks) with 300 residents. The high proportion of foreign

References A ggarwal A., 2007, Impact of Special Economic Zones on Employment, Poverty and Human Development , ICRIER, Working Paper, no. 194. A mbroziak A. A., 2009, Krajowa pomoc regionalna w specjalnych strefach ekonomicznych w Polsce [ National Regional Aid in Special Economic Zones in Poland ], Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie, Warszawa. A mbroziak A. A., H artwell C h .A., 2017, The Impact of Investments in Special Economic Zones on Regional Development: the Case of Poland , Regional Studies, doi: 10.1080/00343404.2017.1395005. Baza Ofert

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Abstract

For decades the Silesian voivodeship has played a key role in the development of the economy of Poland. Its central area is occupied by an old industrial region which has been developed since the 19th century on the basis of coal mining and the processing of iron, zinc and lead ores. As a result of the political transformation of the country, after 1989, the region was faced with a difficult economic situation – a significant reduction in production was recorded and numerous unprofitable obsolete mines and steelworks were decommissioned. Since then, the economy of the Silesian region has been subject to restructuring and revitalization. This article presents this process as illustrated by a representative city – Żory. This is one of the oldest cities in the region which was established in the Middle Ages (1272). For centuries, its inhabitants were engaged in agriculture, fish breeding and trade. Its industrial development started with the construction of the ironworks at the beginning of the 19th century, but the investments after the Second World War were of greatest importance to the city. At that time the “Fadom” factory, two hard coal mines – “Żory” and “Krupiński” – and a plant known as Zakład Tworzyw Sztucznych ERG (Synthetic Fibres Works “ERG”) were constructed. After the political and economic changes of 1989 the economy of the city required urgent restructuring. The change of the function of the city of Żory proceeded gradually, but the creation of economic areas and zones, especially the establishment of the Jastrzębie Zdrój and Żory Subzone of the Katowice Special Economic Zone (1996) and Żory Industrial Park (2004), were of crucial importance to the development of the city. Over the past 20 years the city of Żory has changed from a city dependent on the extractive industries, without signs of a developed urban infrastructure, to a centre of a varied structure of production. Employment in industry and construction decreased from 65.5% to 36.3%, and doubled in the case of services. The private sector currently comprises 75% of all economic entities – most of the companies are small or medium-sized enterprises up to 250 employees.

1 Introduction Government-led public interventions are expected to impact the economies, promote growth, employment, R&D, innovativeness or trade, support inferior areas, or provide the area with exogenous development factors. One example of long-term public intervention is Special Economic Zones (SEZ). The current literature offers many approaches to tracking its economic, social and ecological efficiencies. It is predominantly directed to explain the impact of SEZ on export growth, foreign exchange and technology transfer and R&D ( Warr, 1989 ; Wang, 2013

20 countries can leverage digital-industrial innovations into stronger high-quality jobs growth. Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, 12 (42), 1–23. doi:10.5018/economics-ejournal.ja.2018-42 Azerbaijan Government (2009). The Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on Special Economic Zones. Retrieved from http://www.meclis.gov.az Barinova, V.A., Maltseva, A.A., Sorokina, A.V., & Yeremkin, V.A. (2014). Attitudes to the efficiency assessment of functioning of buildings of innovative infrastructure in Russian Federation. Innovations, 3 (185), 42