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., Duhme F., 2000. Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 52: 1-20. Pawlak J., 2013. Ogrody działkowe w polityce przestrzennej Warszawy (Allotment gardens in the spatial policy of Warsaw). In: Kosmala M. (ed.), Ogrody działkowe w miastach - bariera czy wartość? PZITS Oddział Toruń, Toruń: 35-44. Regulation of the Minister of Infrastructure of 26 August 2003, on the required scope of the project of the local plan of spatial development. Dz.U. 2003 No. 164 item 1587. Resolution of the City Council of

Management 22 (2016), 29–43. R aport : Atrakcyjność inwestycyjna województw i podregionów polski 2016 (Investment Attractiveness of Voivodeships and Subregions in Poland 2016), Instytut Badań nad Gospodarką Rynkową. R inaldi F.M., 2016, From Local Development Policies to Strategic Planning—Assessing Continuity in Institutional Coalitions , Evaluation and Program Planning, Volume 56, pp. 76-87. S zaja M., 2009, Polityka przestrzenna jako narzędzie kreujące rozwój lokalny: próba oceny (Spatial Policy as a Tool which Creates Local Development – Trial of Evaluation

Authorities of Eastern Poland, with a Particular Emphasis on Spatial Policy. Real Estate Management and Valuation , 27 (1), 49–58. DOI: 10.2478/remav-2019-0005. Sobczak, T. (2000). Pozyskiwanie środków finansowych na inwestycje komunalne. In: Z. Szymla (ed.), Konkurencyjność miast i regionów . Kraków: Wydawnictwo AE. Szaja, M. (2016). Lokalna gospodarka przestrzenna w aspekcie planowania wieloletniego. Finanse, Rynki Finansowe, Ubezpieczenia , 6 (84/2), 99–111. DOI: 10.18276/frfu.2016.6.84/2-09. Sztando, A. (2003). Progospodarcza polityka przestrzenna gmin. Prace

reasons that lead to the chaotic nature of suburban development ( Zuziak 2005 : 22; Zimnicka & Czernik 2007a : 112). Due to the lack of instruments that effectively coordinate the spatial policies of municipalities in suburban areas, suburbanisation processes are chaotic and uncontrolled. Communes compete with neighbouring areas to attract new residents to their area. They forget about the importance of links with neighbouring areas which would prevent transport problems, underdevelopment of communal infrastructure and inappropriate educational provision ( Lorens 2005

-21. Koziński, J., 2012: Doktryna swobody budowlanej aspekty ekonomiczne i urbanistyczne (Doctrine of Freedom of Building - Economic and Urban Aspects - in Polish), available at:, DoA: 7 July 2015. Kudłacz, T., 2013: Finansowe aspekty polityki przestrzennej samorządów terytorialnych (Financial Aspects of Spatial Policy of Local and Regional Self-Governments - in Polish). In: Nowakowska, A. editor, Zrozumieć terytorium. Teoria i praktyka, Łódź

: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. O’Riordáin, S. (2013). Governance and the National Spatial Strategy: Placing spatial policy at the heart of the diagonal public service. Administration, 60 (3), 141–58. Parkinson, M., Meegan, R., & Karecha, J. (2015). City size and economic performance: Is bigger better, small more beautiful or middling marvellous? European Planning Studies, 23 (6), 1054–68. Pringle, D. G. (1980). The Irish urban system: An overview. Geographical Viewpoint, 9 , 29–48. Walsh, J. (2013). The National Spatial Strategy: Rationale


The dynamic development of technology benefits from an access to information about space, and thus this development has a significant impact on the urban form of cities. This applies not only to spatial behaviour of users but also to the principles of spatial policy. The purpose of this study is to systematise knowledge in the field of shaping the development of tall buildings in Poland in the light of available spatial data and their impact on the urban structure of cities. The method of aggregation of spatial data in the form of a point cloud from LiDAR laser scanning was validated; geospatial analysis and map studies in the GIS environment were conducted taking into account trends in building height distribution. The conclusions highlight the primary aim of the latest research methods that can be implemented in the context of urban analysis. The case study of Wrocław shows that the method for the aggregation of spatial data from laser scanning is a universal research tool in the search for trends occurring in the urban form of the city, in particular with relation to building height.


The current system of spatial planning in Poland does not provide an effective and efficient tool for controlling planning decisions at a level higher than local. The result is an unrealistic approach to adopting development policies. Nowadays there is strong competition among local governments to attract investors, which results in excessive designation of investment areas and, consequently, an imbalance between supply and demand on the real estate market. An extremely important factor from the point of view of local authorities is also the financial burden on government budgets related to the implementation of the provisions of previously adopted policies. An improper spatial development policy can therefore generate costs without delivering the expected results, due to the lack of demand for the offered resources.

A step in the right direction in optimizing how the spatial policy process is shaped may include conducting analyses and forecasts to support the decision-making process. Such analyses are needed both in terms of the amount of areas designed for each type of land use as well as their spatial distribution. Our considerations are focused on the second aspect. Analysis of land use transformation potential can be used in spatial management by selecting areas most where land use is most likely to change. The paper presents the simplified mechanisms of such analyses which can be adopted by the use of cellular automata. The final potential of an area is affected by variables such as the neighborhood, accessibility and suitability. As a result of the integration of these variables, it is possible to determine land use transformation potential. These considerations relate to the MOLAND (Monitoring Land Use/Cover Dynamics) research project and works on the development of the Metronamica decision support system, conducted in Western Europe.


The aim of this article is to present the essence of a functional area as a new tool of the EU regional policy and the course of designing an integrated approach to the development of the functional area. The study is a case study and relates to the methodical process of creating a development concept for the Functional Area of Oder Communes (FAOC). This article is based on the analysis of the domestic and foreign literature on regional development and own experiences and reflections of authors resulting from the work in the team for the development of a strategy for this area. The analysis of domestic and foreign literature allowed for presenting a new paradigm of the local development. The current approach is characterized by a focus on the use of endogenous potentials and territorial targeting of the development, which promotes the creation of functional and spatial structures such as functional areas. Their development requires integrated development planning that provides benefits both in the social and economic dimension. The study presents the new paradigm of the local development in the context of the National Spatial Development Concept 2030. The study presents the theoretical and practical basis for creating a concept for integrated development of a functional area.


The present paper focuses on spatial management regulations in order to carry out investment in the field of airport facilities. The construction, upgrades, and maintenance of airports falls within the area of responsibility of local authorities. This task poses a great challenge in terms of organisation and finances. On the one hand, an active airport is a municipal landmark and drives local economic, social and cultural development, and on the other, the scale of investment often exceeds the capabilities of local authorities.

The immediate environment of the airport determines its final use and prosperity. The objective of the paper is to review legislation that affects airports and the surrounding communities. The process of urban planning in Lodz and surrounding areas will be presented as a background to the problem of land use management in the vicinity of the airport. This paper seeks to address the following questions: if and how airports have affected urban planning in Lodz, does the land use around the airport prevent the development of Lodz Airport, and how has the situation changed over the time?

It can be assumed that as a result of lack of experience, land resources and size of investments on one hand and legislative dissonance and peculiar practices on the other, aviation infrastructure in Lodz is designed to meet temporary needs and is characterised by achieving short-term goals. Cyclical problems are solved in an intermittent manner and involve all the municipal resources, so there’s little left to secure long-term investments.