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WARSZAWA 2 0 0 0 Vol. 9
Elzbieta Kupczyk, Roman Suligowski
TEMPORAL AND SPATIALPATTERNS OF HIGH INTENSITY
RAINFALLS IN POLAND
RAINFALL DEPTH OF SPECIFIED RETURN PERIOD
In many situations of hydrological practice as design floods estimation at
ungauged sites or drainage system projects, the design storm serves as the
input element for runoff hydrograph calculation. A design hyetograph speci-
fies not only a rainfall event depth (or intensity), duration and frequency but
also gives the time distribution of rainfall depth during a
Selected traits of the spatial organisation of a geographical environment which stem from two types of human behaviour (locational and interactive) are examined in this paper. An attempt is made to find and account for similarities in the spatial patterns of scalar and vector geographical data. In doing so, the paper analyses a core-periphery dichotomy, based on socio-economic information, and travel-to-work patterns. The paper uses the concept of a region as an integrating and focusing framework for the study. Formal regions (peripheral areas) are defined through the application of principal components analysis and cluster analysis; functional regions are defined by a standard rule-based regionalisation algorithm. The territory of the Czech Republic is used as an area for testing the basic hypotheses. The results show that there is some form of interrelationship and complementarity between the spatial distribution of scalar data and vector data, i.e. between spatial structure and spatial interaction patterns, which together form the spatial organisation of a geographical environment.
Using hierarchical cluster analysis there were distinguished six spatial patterns of bird communities during the breeding season in the Lower Dnieper Sands. The differentiation of these patterns is based on a spatial heterogeneity in the area ratio of different habitats. The sites with natural and sub-natural landscapes hold three types of bird communities. Another type of the bird community is relatively similar to the previous three, but characterized by a poor quantitative and qualitative bird composition; it is associated with open landscapes with destroyed natural vegetation. Bird communities of artificial pine plantations (the most transformed landscapes of the Lower Dnieper Sands) are very different from those in the natural and sub-natural landscapes. The spectra of ecological groups of different bird communities match the spectra of different habitat types obtained using a supervised classification of remote sensing data. It makes it possible to use a topological model of the habitat types (based on remote sensing data) as a predictor for GIS modelling of spatial distribution of different birds communities throughout the Lower Dnieper Sands.