Using the Manyōshū corpus, the paper argues that conceptual metaphor theory imposes limitations on the diversity of linguistic facts, particularly those concerning the speaker or the poet who is communicating. The paper offers explanations of the nature of time by drawing upon the inference operating within “basic sign structure”, specifically, indexicality and iconicity, both of which are at the heart of human semiotic activity.
Gentner, Dedre. 2001. Spatial Metaphors in Temporal Reasoning. In Merideth Gattis (ed.), Spatial Schemas and Abstract Thought, 203-222. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Gentner, Dedre, Mutsumi Imai and Lera Boroditsky. 2002. As Time Goes By: Evidence for Two Systems in Processing Space → TimeMetaphors. Language and Cognitive Processes 17. 537-565
Grady, Joseph E. 1997a. THEORIES ARE BUILDINGS revisited. Cognitive Linguistics 8. 267-290.
Grady, Joseph E. 1997b. Foundations of Meaning: Primary