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spaceflight-induced muscle decline have not yet been identified, hindering efforts to devise effective countermeasures. Our current spaceflight experiment, the Molecular Muscle Experiment (MME) builds on previous work showing that C. elegans can grow and reproduce in space with no major health problems ( Nelson et al., 1994 ; Oczypok et al., 2012 ). Previous work has also shown that these worms exhibit similar changes to humans during spaceflight, including changes in muscle properties and energy metabolism ( Higashibata et al., 2006 ; Higashibata et al., 2016 ). Thus

INTRODUCTION The International Space Station (ISS) is one of the largest technology projects and the “outpost” of humanity in space. Furthermore, the ISS is a flying laboratory with excellent opportunities for scientific and industrial research in the hostile space environment. It is still a great challenge to ensure the continuous survival of the ISS crew in space. The main component for sustaining life in orbit is the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) at ISS, which generates optimal conditions for the crew in this closed habitat. With the

INTRODUCTION In 1783, a hydrogen balloon lifted off from Paris, France, starting the era of scientific ballooning. Across subsequent centuries, gas-filled balloons were used for research in astronomy, astrophysics, atmospheric science, and the acquisition of cosmic dust ( Jones, 2014 ). Each of these disciplines recognized the flexibility and affordability of making balloon-borne observations at the edge of space—above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere. To date, numerous discoveries can be credited to scientific ballooning, including the observation of an ozone

INTRODUCTION Veggie is an expandable plant chamber designed and built by ORBITEC (Madison, WI) for the International Space Station (ISS). The chamber provides approximately 0.13 m 2 growing area with a red, green, and blue LED lighting system. A recent review ( Massa et al., 2016 ) provides a more detailed description of this plant growth hardware, focusing primarily on the LED lighting array. NASA launched the Veggie chamber to the ISS in April, 2014, and the chamber was installed and tested beginning in May, 2014 as part of the VEG-01 hardware validation test

INTRODUCTION Human habitation in space is predicated on the advancement of the technologies necessary to support life in a highly challenging and constrained environment. As NASA and other space agencies seek to expand extraterrestrial human endeavors, sustainable and robust life support systems are a critical limiting factor ( ISECG, 2011 ; NASA, 2011 ; NRC, 2012 ). Within these systems, water is a fundamental element, representing at minimum 65% of the daily mass input for crew members ( Barta and Henninger, 1994 ). Efficient and reliable water recycling

References ALBERS P., JAMES W., 1988, Travel photography: a methodological approach, Annals of Tourism Research, 15, 1, pp. 134-158. ANDRIOTIS K., 2009, Sacred site experience. A phenomenological study, Annals of Tourism Research, 36, 1, pp. 64-84. COHEN E., 1979, A phenomenology of tourist experiences, Sociology, 13, 1, pp. 179-201. COHEN E., 1988, Authenticity and commodization in tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 15, 3, pp. 371-386. DE BOTTON A., 2003, The art of travel, Penguin Books, London. EDENSOR T., 2007, Mundane mobilities, performances and spaces of

famous bacteria strains E. coli and P. aeruginosa . Applying ‘principal component analysis’ (PCA), it was possible to separate the smell signals from each bacteria strain into clearly distinguishable clusters ( Dutta et al., 2002 ). Both examples demonstrate the potential and the capabilities of electronic noses to detecting and identifying microorganisms. In this paper, we report on the construction, training, and commissioning of an electronic nose for the detection of microorganisms inside the ‘International Space Station’ (ISS). The aim of this research is to

INTRODUCTION Only a few soldering-related experiments have been conducted in a microgravity environment ( Winter and Jones, 1996 ; Pettegrew et al., 2002 ; Pettegrew et al., 2003 ; Struk et al., 2004 ). These were followed up by the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI) which was conducted as “Saturday Science” in the Maintenance Workbench Area (MWA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2004 ( Grugel et al., 2006 ). During these tests, 86 total solder samples were made. Seven different wire configurations were employed to observe how the

INTRODUCTION It is likely that alteration to the methylome of plants flown aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is one of the modalities engaged to cope with this unfamiliar environment (Paul et al., unpublished observations). Methylation occurs at the 5 position of cytosine bases and coordinates chromatin modification by recruitment of chromatin remodelers, resulting in regulation of gene expression, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, and embryonic development ( Jaenisch and Bird 2003 ; Mohandus et al., 1981 ; Li et al., 1993 ; Finnegan et

approach to the lattice of convex sub-lattices of a lattice, Algebra Universalis 35(1996), 63-71. [17] V. Leoreanu-Fotea, P. Corsini, Soft hypergroups, Critical Review, Creighton University-USA 4(2010), 81-97. [18] V. Leoreanu- Fotea, B. Davvaz, Join n-spaces and lattices, Journal of Multiple Valued Logic and Soft Computing, 15(5-6)(2009), 421-432. [19] V. Leoreanu-Fotea, I. G. Rosenberg, Join spaces determined by lattices, Journal of Multiple Valued Logic Soft Computing, 16(1-2)(2010), 7-16. [20] V. Leoreanu Fotea, I.G. Rosenberg, Hypergroupoids determined by lattices