Figurative idioms constitute a large proportion of multi-word expressions in everyday language. Contrary to the traditional view of idioms as non-compositional units, numerous studies in cognitive linguistics show that most idioms are not arbitrary but motivated by conceptual metaphors and metonymies that provide a link between literal and figurative meanings. Familiarity with particular source domains and conceptual mappings is regarded as a source of idiom transparency. In this article, we report on a study in which 85 Slovak students participated. Their task was to guess the meanings of English idioms containing three body parts: the eye, the hand and the heart. These body parts are not equally productive metaphorical source domains in English and Slovak. The research results which we present indicate that different prominence of the source domains in students’ mother tongue and the target language is one of the factors that influence idiom comprehension in a foreign language.
The paper explores the conceptual metaphors with the source domain of insanity in English and Serbian, focusing on the features of the source domain that are transferred into target domains. It is shown that the experience that shapes these metaphors relies on the manifestations of mental illness and the common beliefs about mental illness that hold in both languages.
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In political discourse metaphors are frequently employed for persuading and manipulating the public. The aim of our research is to show whether there are differences in the use of source domains of conceptual metaphors among Croatian politicians in comparison with American and Italian politicians. The corpus of our research consists of political newspaper articles and interviews from Croatian, American and Italian daily newspapers (Jutarnji list, Večernji list, Corriere della Sera, Repubblica, ABC, USA Today and The New York Times), downloaded from newspaper archives. We can conclude that metaphorical expressions vary from language to language, but often the same metaphorical expressions appear in all languages. Expressions that frequently recur are victory, attack, battle, race, defense, splay, stage and role. Except for two ontological metaphors in Croatian examples, we can say that there is no major difference in the source domains between Croatian, American and Italian political discourse.
This paper attempts to carry out an analysis of metaphors in a corpus of legal documents, within the theoretical framework of the cognitive metaphor theory as conceived by Lakoff and Johnson (1980). There is a notable use of conceptual metaphors and framings in the law we live by which, undoubtedly, have a major impact on the way millions of people in the world act and react in their attempt of decoding legal messages. Since metaphors are basically cognitive constructs, their meaning can be grasped only through a process of transfer of significance from a source domain to a target one, leading thus, to an interpretation of the legal discourse.
The paper deals with metonymies having body parts as source domains in English and Bosnian. According to Cognitive Linguistics standpoint, human cognition is based on bodily functioning. Therefore, we started from the hypothesis that most body part metonymies are very similar across languages and cultures, and share similar properties. The aim of the paper was threefold: first, to examine whether metonymies with body parts as source domains have common grammatical and conceptual properties in English, secondly to examine whether they share the same properties in Bosnian, and thirdly to compare the two languages in this respect. We analysed body part metonymies in terms of some grammatical properties such as the use of singular and plural, specific and generic reference, grammatical recategorisation from count to mass nouns, noun-to-verb conversion, and some conceptual properties such as source-in-target vs. target-in-source metonymies, metonymic chains and combination of metaphor and metonymy. Many common features were found both within the respective languages under consideration and in cross-linguistic analysis. The minor differences found in contrasting the data from the two languages are mainly the result of differences in grammatical systems.
Depeng Gao, Jiafeng Liu, Rui Wu, Dansong Cheng, Xiaopeng Fan and Xianglong Tang
With the advent of 3D cameras, getting depth information along with RGB images has been facilitated, which is helpful in various computer vision tasks. However, there are two challenges in using these RGB-D images to help recognize RGB images captured by conventional cameras: one is that the depth images are missing at the testing stage, the other is that the training and test data are drawn from different distributions as they are captured using different equipment. To jointly address the two challenges, we propose an asymmetrical transfer learning framework, wherein three classifiers are trained using the RGB and depth images in the source domain and RGB images in the target domain with a structural risk minimization criterion and regularization theory. A cross-modality co-regularizer is used to restrict the two-source classifier in a consistent manner to increase accuracy. Moreover, an L2,1 norm cross-domain co-regularizer is used to magnify significant visual features and inhibit insignificant ones in the weight vectors of the two RGB classifiers. Thus, using the cross-modality and cross-domain co-regularizer, the knowledge of RGB-D images in the source domain is transferred to the target domain to improve the target classifier. The results of the experiment show that the proposed method is one of the most effective ones.
Zoya Rezanova & Konstantin Shilyaev. Megametaphor as a coherence and cohesion device in a cycle of literary texts. The Poznań Society for the Advancement of Arts and Sciences, PL ISSN 0079-4740, pp. 31-39
The present study is concerned with the notion of megametaphor and its role in the cohesion and coherence of the text, as well as its intertextual function. We discuss the method of identifying and structuring megametaphor in a literary text and apply it to four novels by Jack London that have dogs as their protagonists. The megametaphor DOG IS A MAN is shown to organize the texts both conceptually - via a coherent set of frame structures of the source domain - and linguistically, by way of applying a network of metaphorical lexemes to the description of a dog.
The paper applies an interdisciplinary perspective to a fictional text showing that fractals as mathematical models are a powerful tool for conceptualizing life experience in biographical narratives. The multilevel construction of Chatterton by Peter Ackroyd is explored on the basis of fractal metaphor theory. This research focuses on the LIFE IS A STORY conceptual fractal metaphor which is built up on analogical mappings, mental space connections, and blends. The fractal model of metaphor in biographical narrative, which is assigned to the formula LIFE IS A STORY f (1) + f (2) + f (3) + … + f (n), contains the mental space of the intentional source domain story, which provides a way to structure the understanding of the limiting target domain of the concept life. Fractal metaphors aim at making the conceptual metaphor flexible and dynamic, renewing its ability of self-development and self-perfection, transforming itself into one of the means of changeable conceptualization of reality.
The paper explores the existence of cognitive linguistics principles in translation of emotion-related metaphorical expressions. Cognitive linguists (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff, 1987) define metaphor as a mechanism used for understanding one conceptual domain, target domain, in terms of another conceptual domain, source domain, through sets of correspondences between these two domains. They also claim that metaphor is omnipresent in ordinary discourse. Cognitive linguists, however, also realized that certain metaphors can be recognized and identified in different languages and cultures whereas some are language- and culture-specific. This paper focuses on similarities and variations in metaphors which have recently become popular within the discipline of Translation Studies. Transferring and translating metaphors from one language to another can represent a challenge for translators due to a multi-faceted process of translation including both linguistic and non-linguistic elements. A number of methods and procedures have been developed to overcome potential difficulties in translating metaphorical expressions, with the most frequent ones being substitution, paraphrase, or deletion. The analysis shows the transformation of metaphorical expressions from one language into another and the procedures involving underlying conceptual metaphors, native speaker competence, and the influence of the source language.