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The theme presented is aimed at attempting to perceive the fundamental qualities of the man’s personality (body, soul and spirit) from the philosophical, anthropological and theological point of view and, at the same time, to establish the value reflections towards its (current and universal) existential orientations. Namely, today's experience shows us that tendencies with notable prevailing of corporality over the other constitutive properties of the human being are constantly getting stronger. The body cult is vigorously stressed: body building and fitness clubs, as well as special gyms and wellness facilities (saunas, hydro massage baths, tepidariums are advertised, which should satisfy the increased corporal‐hedonistic and corporal‐aesthetic motives. This disturbing of the essential and human structure established by God demands the return to the original settings of Christian trichotomy (not serving the body but serving of the body), whereby a balanced and harmonious relationship between the body, the soul, and the spirit is developed by equally bearing in mind all three areas on which all three "gymnastics" are tuned and effectively performed, which leads to overall development and fulfilment of a human being.
Humans have always been and still are fascinated by the elusive phenomenon of soul and have devised various approaches to interpret it and attribute different names to it; depending on which part, which religion, which tribe and which sect of the world they belong to. Theologians to philosophers to spiritual thinkers to literary authors and critics to scientists—all seem to be researching and explaining its nature and place in the universal scheme of things. Interestingly, there is a unanimity among all, regarding the eternity and indestructibility of soul. The ancient Hindu scripture, Bhagavad Gita establishes soul (Jivatma) as a triad of Self, Nature (Prakriti: material reality) and God (Parmeshvara). The inner self is Soul which bears reflections of both, the physical nature and God. Malleable in ignorance, it identifies with the sense-perception dominated body but once realising its true nature, it is capable of governing the body and its actions. With the support mechanisms and persistence, it traverses across individual body consciousness to universal consciousness. This article strives to make a hermeneutic study of this metaphysical text; inquiring how awareness of the duality of nature; transient and permanent, triggers a gradual process of evolution, leading to a complete transformation when a soul resides within a body as a unifying factor; not for exploiting it or others or vice versa but for bringing about universal harmony.
In the present material, I intend to bring light to somehow marginal elements that form the process of preparing a theatre show. These elements are not present in the show but they critically support it. I have also thought of recalling the importance of each detail which is related to theatre as an institution, starting with the entry into the building, the lobby in which the spectators are welcome and ending with the seconds at the end of the show and the first applauses. I didn’t intent to insist in the sphere of the analysis of the scenic arts by themselves (actor performance, music, dance, scenography and so on), but I wanted to present a redefinition of the attitude towards these marginal elements that support the show. Exactly in the same manner in which the secondary characters increase the value of action and, also, in the theatre there are a lot of people that work hard but, from time to time, their efforts are forgotten. In order for theatre to be a therapy for the souls, it is necessary that every cell that forms the artistic performance contain the premises of the healing.
The scope of the research is to investigate and to present the human being as a whole. The article presents a series of experiments regarding the human being. It reveals, based on proven facts, such as video footages and scientific measurements, that the human being is not only just a simple physical body. It is a complex structure with an energy shell and a soul with an essential role and these details have to be studied more thoroughly in the future. As the human body uses energy, specific measurement practices are applied. The authors used an Electro Photonic Imaging Device and a Thermal Vision Camera Device because the measured energy frequencies are not within the optical visual frequency range. The general and the detailed human body health state can be evaluated using the EPI Device. Despite the classical medicine approach that considers only the physical component of the body, the article proves the existence and reveals a wider behavior of the human being from the supplementary point of view which is often called spirit, soul, ethereal body or just entity. It is also shown that the human being is capable of evaluating and healing by own means. Thus, a study case is presented regarding the health state evolution during a period of one year, while the human body is continuously taking care of itself. The complete control of the entire human being leads to a continuous good health and also to a good physical and psychic state, with increased performances in all activities. All these achievements can be useful to also obtain a very good job. The objective of the authors are to proof that the soul exists and also that every person can act to improve the own health, the general state and so to rich easier the happiness.
This paper re-evaluates Derek Parfit’s attack on the commonly held view that personal identity is necessarily determinate and that it is what matters. In the first part we first argue against the Humean view of personal identity; secondly, we classify the remaining alternatives into three kinds: the body theory and the brain theory, the quasi-Humean theory, and the soul theory, and thirdly we deploy Parfit’s arguments and related considerations to the point that none of the materialistic alternatives is consistent with the commonly held view. This leaves us with the alternative: either we accept the radical and highly implausible materialistic view Parfit calls ‘Reductionism’, or we accept the view that we are nonphysical indivisible entities—Cartesian egos, or souls. The second part of the paper discusses Parfit’s objections against the Cartesian view: that there is no reason to believe in the existence of such nonphysical entities; that if such entities exist, there is no evidence that they are enduring (to span a human life); that even if they exist and are enduring, they are irrelevant for the psychological profile and temporal continuity of a person; that experiments with ‘brain-splitted’ patients provide strong evidence against the Cartesian view. We argue that these objections are in part mistaken, and that the remaining (sound) part is not strong enough to make the Cartesian view less plausible than Reductionism.
general pronouncement on the matter.2
One of these cases concerns Aristotle’s definition of the soul in De anima II, 1. There
Aristotle develops a general definition of a soul as “an actuality of the first kind of a
natural organized body” (412b4, transl. J. A. Smith) or “the first actuality of a natural
body which has organs” (transl. D.W. Hamlyn). In what follows, he gives two
examples of the consequences of this account. First, if an axe were a natural body
Although the advent of the Kingdom of God in Jesus contains as an intrinsic quality the opportunity for repentance (metanoia) as often as required, the Church of the first five-hundred years shows serious difficulties with the opportunity of conversion after a relapse in sinning after baptism. The Church allowed only one chance of repentance. Requirement for the reconciliation were a public confession and the acceptance of severe penances, especially after committing the mortal sin of apostasy, fornication or murder. As severe as this paenitentia canonica appears, its entire conception especially in the eastern part of the Church, the Oriental Church, is a remedial one: sin represents an ailment of the soul, the one, who received the confession, is called upon to meet the confessing person as a spiritual physician or soul-friend. Penance does not mean punishment, but healing like a salutary remedy. Nevertheless, the lack of privacy led to the unwanted practice of postponing repentance and even baptism on the deathbed. An alternative procedure of repentance arose from the sixth century onwards in the Irish Church as well as the Continental Church under the influence of Irish missionaries and the South-West-British and later the English Church (Insular Church). In treatises about repentance, called penitentials, ecclesiastical authorities of the sixth to the eight centuries wrote down regulations, how to deal with the different capital sins and minor trespasses committed by monks, clerics and laypeople. Church-representatives like Finnian, Columbanus, the anonymous author of the Ambrosianum, Cummean and Theodore developed a new conception of repentance that protected privacy and guaranteed a discrete, an affordable as well as a predictable penance, the paenitentia privata. They not only connected to the therapeutic aspect of repentance in the Oriental Church by adopting basic ideas of Basil of Caesarea and John Cassian, they also established an astonishing network in using their mutual interrelations. Here the earlier penitentials served as source for the later ones. But it is remarkable that the authors in no way appeared as simple copyists, but also as creative revisers, who took regard of the pastoral necessities of the entrusted flock. They appeared as engaged in the goal to improve their ecclesiastical as well as their civil life-circumstances to make it possible that the penitents of the different ecclesiastical estates could perform their conversion and become reconciled in a dignified way. The aim of the authors was to enable the confessors to do the healing dialogue qualitatively in a high standard; quantity was not their goal. The penitents should feel themselves healed, not punished.