Four types of Chaffinch rain-calls were found in Ukraine: “rülsch” - a trill signal widely spread in Europe; “hui” - a whistle signal that occurs in North-Western and Central Europe; “Crimean” whistle signal known only from Crimean peninsula and “Caucasian” signal occurring in Caucasus, Asia Minor and Balkans. Sonograms of rendition versions are given for all of the call types. Distribution of dialects of Chaffinch rain-calls in Ukraine was examined. “Rülsch”- dialect occurs at most of the plane Ukraine and Carpathians. Owing to colonizing artificial afforestations in steppe zone this dialect population’s range expanded southward to the coast of the Black and Azov seas. “Hui”-dialect is spread in the Lower Danube region. At the North-Eastern Danube delta Chaffinch’s with “hui”- and “rülsch”- rain-calls are found together and a bird was found that uttered both signals alternately but hybrid signals were not registered. It may attest to recent invasion by “rülsch”- population of Chaffinch’s there. “Crimean” dialect is distributed in mountainous Crimea and in most of the Crimean steppe zone. “Caucasian” rain-call renditions are registered in cases of individual vagrant birds in eastern Crimea and Lower Danube region
Song repertoire of geographically isolated Chiffchaff population that formed in Crimean mountains in 1990s is analyzed. There are 42 song elements in the Crimean Chiffchaff repertoire. A quarter of their song elements appear to be specific for this population because it is absent in neighboring European Chiffchaff populations from regions to the north (Ph. c. abietinus subspecies) and west (Ph. c. collybita subspecies). Comparison of song elements of Crimean Chiffchaffs with those of Caucasian birds of Ph. c. caucasica subspecies shows that they belong to same vocal population: specific elements in Crimean Chiffchaff songs are found also in songs of Caucasian birds. This is evidence that breeding population of Chiffchaff in Crimea originated from the species expansion from Caucasus, and that Crimean Chiffchaffs belong to Ph. c. caucasica subspecies.
The repertoire of chaffinches from the northeast of Balkan region consists of 39 song types, 9 of them are most widespread. Comparative analysis of the chaffinch song types from the Balkans and from Caucasus, East Carpathians, Crimean Mountains, plain regions of Ukraine was done. It revealed no Balkan song types in other regions. Chaffinch songs from Balkan are similar by structure to songs from the Caucasus and East Carpathians and quite different from songs from the Crimea and Ukrainian plains. In songs of Balkan chaffinches we discovered 106 elements. Five of them are specific for local birds, 101 were found in birds from other populations. However, 37 elements are common with ones in East Carpathian populations but they were absent in chaffinch songs recorded in the Crimea and plain regions of Ukraine. Common elements in bird songs from the East Carpathians and the Balkans may be an evidence of distant relations between these territorial song complexes and/or presence of relic elements in south mountain complexes. Th e rain-calls of Balkan chaffinches radically diff er from those of birds of Crimea, plain regions of Ukraine and East Carpathians and quite identical to calls of the Caucasus birds
Song repertoire of chaffinch F. c. solomkoi subspecies from Crimea was analyzed. We discerned 38 song types in Crimean chaffinches’ repertoire, 27 of them were more frequent. Comparing Crimean chaffinches’ songs with those of nominative subspecies from Eastern Europe showed no common songs. Comparison of individual song elements showed that songs of F. c. solomkoi consisted of 108 elements, of which 18 were distinctive to Crimean birds, 18 were specific to Crimean chaffinches and Carpa-thian F. c. coelebs population while absent in songs of chaffinches from Eastern Europe plains. Comparison of F. c. solomkoi songs with songs of Caucasian subspecies F. c.caucasica revealed no common types of songs. There are certain similarities in song structures between some Crimean chaffinches and hybrid popula-tion of F. c. caucasica and F. c. solomkoi from Northwest Caucasus. Other specifics of vocalization showed drastic differences in rain-call structures of all subspecies and no after-song “kit“ element for Caucasian sub-species
Background: The undescended testis represents a common condition affecting male infants with significant clinical implications such as infertility and testicular malignancy. There is controversy as to the diagnosis when a clinical examination fails to identify a testis. Objective: Investigate the value of ultrasound in the diagnosis of undescended testis, and evaluate the correlation between the preoperative ultrasonographic data and operative findings. Material and method: Thirty-nine boys (age: 3months -12 years) with undescended testes were examined between January 2003 and December 2007. All the boys had undergone a sonogram performed for localizing the undescended testes. Only 20 boys were sent for inguinal exploration, or other surgical procedures for localizing the undescended testes. We calculated specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the accuracy of ultrasonographic diagnosis in boys with undescended testes. Results: Twenty-nine undescended testes were included in this study. Ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 82%, a specificity of 0%, PPV of 96%, NPV of 0%, and accuracy of 79% in the diagnosis of the undescended testis. Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity including NPV of uetrasound had the unsatisfactory outcomes.
A congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a rare disorder of the pulmonary airway and a hamartomatous mass of disorganized lung tissues with various degrees of cystic change. A 20-year-old pregnant woman who did not have previous clinical follow-up during her pregnancy visited the gynecology department for her first check on the 19th week of gestation. The sonogram, showed severe hydrops fetalis. Laboratory findings were consistent with non-immune hydrops fetalis. Medical abortion was performed and the fetus was sent to our department for a complete fetal autopsy. Macroscopically, whole parts of the fetus had striking oedema. Massive pleural and peritoneal effusions were seen on dissection. The left lung filled the whole thoracic cavity. The heart was displaced to the right and the right lung was compressed. Microscopically, the left lung mass showed dilated bronchiole-like structures (1-20 mm) that were lined with ciliated columnar cells without any intervening mucinous cells. The subepithelial stroma contained thin, interrupted smooth muscle fibers and elastic connective tissue without cartilage plates. Our case is a very good example of non-immune hydrops fetalis associated with congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 2. Prenatal clinical and ultrasonographic follow-ups during pregnancy are very important for early diagnosis of congenital malformations.
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. Microscopic evaluation of metaphase plates revealed a short arm satellite deletion of chromosome 13 ( Figure 1 ). At the 20 th week of pregnancy, a detailed sonogram of the fetus was performed, which revealed no structural malformations. Subsequent prenatal examinations were uneventful. A planned Cesarean section was performed at the 39 th week of pregnancy and a healthy baby boy, weighing 3.7 kg and with a length of 51 cm, was delivered with an Apgar score of between 9 and 10. The newborn was completely normal upon examination. Clinical examination of the baby at 2 years