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References Abela, Anthony M. 2004. Solidarity and religion in the European Union: A comparative sociological perspective. In The Value(s) of a Constitution for Europe. ed. Peter G. Xuereb, 71-101. Malta: European Documentation and Research Centre, University of Malta. Arnsperger, Christian and Yanis Varoufakis. 2003. Toward a Theory of Solidarity.Erkenntnis 59 (2): 157-188. Arts, Wil and John Gelissen. 2001. Welfare states, solidarity and justice principles: does the type really matter? Acta Sociologica 4 (4): 283-300. De Beer, Paul and Ferry Koster. 2009

: Szyszczak, E., Davies, J., Andenaes, M. and Bekkedal, T., eds. Developments in Services of General Interest. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press. Ross, M., 2009. The Value of Solidarity in European Public Services Law, In: Krajewski, M., Neergaard, U., Van de Gronden, J., eds. The Changing Legal Framework for Services of General Interest in Europe, Between Competition and Solidarity. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.

REFERENCES Adams, B. N. (1968). Kinship in urban setting. Chicago: Markham Publishing. Aldous, J. (1987). New views on the family life of the elderly and the near elderly. Journal of Marriage and the Family , 49 (2), 227–234. Anderson, T. B. (1984). Widowhood as a life transition: Its impact on kinship ties. Journal of Marriage and the Family , 46 (1), 105–114. Atkinson, M. P., Kivett, V. R., Campbell, R. T. (1986). Intergenerational solidarity: An examination of a theoretical model. Journal of Gerontology , 41 (3), 408–416. Bauman, Z. (2004

solidarity: Between the family and the state. Current Sociology, 50(2): 243-262. Bengtson, V. L., and Schrader, S. S. (1982). Parent-Child Relations. In D. J. Mangen, and W. A. Peterson (eds.): Research Instruments in Social Gerontology, Vol. 2. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 115-128. Bengtson, V. L., Rosenthal, C. J., Burton, L. M. (1990). Families and ageing: Diversity and heterogeneity. In R. H. Binstock, and L. K. George (eds.): Handbook of ageing and the social sciences . New York: Academic Press, pp. 263-287. Bengtson, V. L., Roberts, R


While potential threats from Russia and NATO collective defence commitments are similar for Latvia and Estonia, both countries have adopted different approaches in the balancing exercise between territorial defence and military solidarity. Notwithstanding their differences, both are by their nature fully non-aggressive – without room for pre-emptive initiatives, extra territoriality or asymmetrical tools. Given that in a case of a hypothetical large-scale conventional attack both countries would almost entirely have to rest on the allies, external military solidarity is essential. Until the Ukraine crisis, both offered more military solidarity towards their NATO allies than the latter offered to them. As the result of the Ukrainian crisis, allies became more military-solidary with the Baltic nations, especially having established the Enhanced Forward Presence, while Estonian and especially Latvian contributions to international missions and operations dropped. Therefore, it is suggested that both countries increase their efforts to the allied international endeavours.

Christian values. For the abuse of Christian values rhetoric, see, for example, (accessed 2/6/2018). The societies in these countries are divided. In the Czech Republic, there have also been the strongest civic protests against governmental policies since the fall of Communism, as well as subcultures promoting solidarity. Apart from the NGOs (such as People in Need, Amnesty International, Diakonie, Charita, Adra) who have been long-term helping both inside the country and abroad, new initiatives were established, such as Hate Free


The purpose of this article is to focus on the main prerequisites for the increasing nationalism among some of the Member States in the European Union and its impact in terms of solidarity, law, and security. In recent years, a number of events and processes have unlocked the growth of nationalism and the increase of its public support as a response to the fear of replacing the values and identity of European societies. For example, the disproportionate migratory pressures "woke up" in some European societies a legitimate fear for their national identity. It is now the time to offer legal mechanisms that are flexible enough for sharing security and finding a balance between the national and European interest in order to avoid a revival of extreme nationalism

provides a general picture of the situation, there are important issues that have not received their coverage yet. Among them is the transformation of the Crimean Tatar institutions and discourses and their hybridization, which is understood as the formation of new institutions with mixed, heterogeneous composition and discourse. This process, based on discourse analysis of statements of members of “Crimean solidarity” ( Krymskaya solidarnost’ ) and content analysis of media, is the focus of this article. The main research questions can be formulated in the following way

of refugees very uneven among EU member states-even when accounting for economic strength and total population.” DIW Economic Bulletin 5:39 (2015): 511–523. 5. Bruycker, Philippe de, and Evangelia Lilian Tsourdi. “Building the Common European Asylum System beyond Legislative Harmonisation: Practical cooperation, Solidarity and External Dimension”: 471–538. In: Vincent Chetail, Philippe De Bruycker, and Francesco Maiani. Reforming the Common European Asylum System: The New European Refugee Law . BRILL, 2016. 6. Bruycker, Philippe de, and Evangelia Lilian Tsourdi


In today’s transforming European public sphere various literary authors position themselves publicly and engagingly in the debate on migration and exclusion. Dutch writer Tommy Wieringa is a clear voice in this context: his ideas on the topic are meaningfully expressed in literary novels. This article analyses Wieringa’s position as an authoritative public intellectual speaking with great moral weight about the figure of the migrant. Drawing on positioning theory, the main claim of the article will be that Wieringa’s literary articulation of migration contributes to the societal discussion and underlines a specific type of moral knowledge as well as an appeal to human solidarity.