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[ 4 ], sol-gel [5–7], hydrothermal [ 8 , 9 ], spray pyrolysis [ 10 ], combustion synthesis [ 11 ], and chemical co-precipitation methods [ 12 ]. Furthermore, other innovative methods, such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) [ 13 ], R.F. sputtering [ 14 ], chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electrochemical [ 15 ], electrostatic spray assisted vapor deposition (ESAVD) [ 16 ] have been used to synthesize BST powders. Compared with other methods, solgel process, because of its numerous advantages in producing barium-strontium titanate ceramics, has received a strong
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corresponding oxides in a furnace at 1000 °C to 1400 °C, by a solid-state reaction [ 16 ]. However, this method uses different oxides and generally requires a pre-treatment to obtain the desired homogenous mixture [ 17 ]. In addition, an intermediate phase of YFeO 3 is also produced in a solid-state reaction, which is an undesirable phase for many applications. Alternatively, YIG structures can be synthesized by a variety of different wet chemical techniques, such as sol-gel, co-precipitation, micro-emulsion synthesis, citrate-gel routes, hydrothermal synthesis and
-unloaded, stable-loaded, and unstable mechanical conditions [ 6 ]. Besides enhanced bone bonding, hydroxyapatite coating was shown to convert a motion-induced fibrous membrane into a bony anchorage [ 7 ].
Typically, hydroxyapatite coating is applied using a plasma spraying process that involves the use of extremely high temperatures resulting in the phase heterogeneity and coating delamination, which could lead to instability and even the failure of coated implants [ 3 ]. Alternatively, low-temperature sol–gel coating has shown to offer several advantages, including better