Sławomir Gonet, Maciej Markiewicz, Włodzimierz Marszelewski and Andrzej Dziamski
Soil transformations in catchment of disappearing Sumówko Lake (Brodnickie Lake District, Poland)
Lake disappearing is a natural process which contemporarily escalates in consequence of human activity. It is estimated that within the area of Northern Poland from the last glaciation period (ca. 17 000 years ago) a half of lakes totally have disappeared. Areas exposed after water basins desiccation have become native rocks for new soils. Reduced water level results in changes of morphology and properties of the soils situated in direct vicinity of former water basins. The aim of this study was to estimate impact of the catchment groundwater level fall on morphology and properties of direct lake catchment soils, exemplified by the lake Sumowko (Northern Poland) as well as description of new soils formed of lake sediments. The analysis covered 11 soil profiles emerging within former lake basin (newly formed soils) and soils from direct vicinity of former lake (modified through ground water level fall). Obtained results prove that newly formed soils (Limnic Histosol Drainic and Haplic Gleysol) in majority are utilized as grasslands. Soils of the former lake surroundings prove relic features of gleying while they are also subject to mucking process because of dehydration.
Results of the study showed that cultivation of the grey-brown (chestnut) and mountain brown soils under the grape plantation changes their morphogenetic and morphological characteristics in arid subtropical climatic condition. Performed cultivation caused migration of humus into the deeper soil layers. The denser horizon formed under a soft layer. This results in a change of the soil chemical structure and water-physical properties. These changes manifested themselves under irrigative condition.
Soil profiles of the city centre of Debrecen were investigated in order to examine their properties and investigate the vertical distribution of heavy metals as a measure the anthropogenic activity. During the laboratory work the basic soil features were identified (texture, artefact content, pH, CaCO3, and amounts of organic matter). Furthermore, contents of Pb, Zn, Cu and Co in the soils were measured. Most of the metals showed a strong positive correlation with the humus content and the silt fraction. The soils of the city centre are exposed to a significant anthropogenic effect, therefore the original soil morphologies are usually difficult to identify. The soil profiles are greatly disturbed, which is traceable in the vertical distribution of certain soil features and metal contents.
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