References  STN EN 1426 Bitumen and bituminous binders. Determination of needle penetration. July 2016.  STN EN 1427 Bitumen and bituminous binders. Determination of the softeningpoint. Ring and Ball method. July 2016.  STN EN 13302 Bitumen and bituminous binders. Determination of dynamic viscosity of bituminous binder using a rotating spindle apparatus. August 2010.  GAJDOŠ, M.: Comparison of properties of bitumen binders from different sources (in Slovak). Bachelor thesis, University of Žilina, 2017.  MARKECHOVÁ, D. - TIRPÁKOVÁ, A. - STEHLÍKOVÁ
EN1427:1999. Bitumen and bituminous binders. Determination of the softeningpoint. Ring and Ball method.  EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 14770:2012. Bitumen and bituminous binders. Determination of complex shear modulus and phase angle. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR).
The waste generation from old rubber tires has been increasing and causing environmental degradation with the escalation of vehicles number especially in the cities. Bitumen is extensively used in flexible pavement construction and as its manufacturing industries were still growing, the cost has not been much affordable. This study aimed at evaluating the possibility of a partial replacement of ordinary bitumen by tire rubber waste, with the purpose to reduce not only the amount of rubber wastes dispersed in the nature, but also the material cost, while keeping or improving the bitumen product performance. The study used rubber waste powder as partial replacement to ordinary bitumen by 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of its weight and, with adequate samples, properties of the bitumen product were investigated, after checking the standard quality of used bitumen 60/70 grade. It was established that more adequate results were achieved at 5% of replacement, which showed the penetration value of 61.66 tenths mm, the softening point value of 52.750C, and the viscosity of 134 sec. Regarding the cost estimation of this new bitumen, a cost reduction of around 5.3% was realized. Therefore, the use of rubber waste powder would contribute not only to the reduction of the quantity of respective waste in the environment, but also influence on the material affordability. The use of other grades of bitumen than 60/70, as well as the strength and durability performance may be a good scope for further studies.
industrially developed alternatives of low-viscosity bituminous binders - characteristics of asphalt binders, characteristics of the ACO 11+ mixture). Research report 1.1.5, Centrum CESTI, Faculty of Civil Engineering, CTU in Prague, Czech Republic, 2013, 15 pp. (in Czech). STN EN 1426 (2016) Bitumen and bituminous binders. Determination of needle penetration, Slovak Office of Standards, (in Slovak). STN EN 1427 (2016) Bitumen and bituminous binders. Determination of the softeningpoint. Ring and Ball method, Slovak Office of Standards, (in Slovak).
References ASTM D4402 (2016) Standard Practice for Viscosity-Temperature Chart for Asphalt Binders . CSAB (2014) Catalog sheets of asphalt binders. EN 12591 (2009) Bitumen and bituminous binders – Specifications for paving grade bitumen . EN 14023 (2010) Bitumen and bituminous binders. Specification framework for polymer modified bitumens . EN 1426 (2016) Bitumen and bituminous binders. Determination of needle penetration . EN 1427 (2016) Bitumen and bituminous binders. Determination of the softeningpoint. Ring and Ball method . Mallick, R.B., El-Korchi, T
Good quality bitumen used in the production of bitumen-aggregate mixtures is a binder with high stiffness and elasticity at high operating temperatures occurring in summer and adequate flexibility during exposure to sub-zero temperatures. Currently, one of the best technological solutions to improve the viscoelasticity of bitumen and the resistance to ageing is their modification with various types of additives. The paper presents the results of penetration tests as a function of temperature, softening point (ring and ball method) and strain energy at various temperatures of road bitumen modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene) copolymer, crumb rubber and simultaneous bitumen modification with SBS copolymer and crumb rubber. The obtained results allowed to assess temperature sensitivity, resistance to changes in selected technical properties of the tested binders as a result of technological ageing process with RTFOT (Roler Thin Film Oven Tester) method and to evaluate changes in their technical properties in relation to the 50/70 base bitumen. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyse the impact of the modification type on the test results of technical properties (significance of the impact of the considered factors on the level of technical properties).
Test For Aggregates For Concrete - Part III Specific Gravity, Density, Voids, Absorption and Bulking . IS 2386 (Part IV) - 1963 Indian Standard. Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete. Part IV Mechanical Properties . IS 1203: 1978 Methods of testing tar and bituminous material - Determination of penetration . IS 1205: 1978 Methods for testing tar and bituminous materials - Determination of Softeningpoint . IS 1202: 1978 Methods of testing tar and bituminous materials - Determination of specific gravity [l6]. IS 1208: 1978 Methods of testing
Test Method for Viscosity Determinations of Unfilled Asphalts Using the Brookfield Thermosel Apparatus. Easton: ASTM , 2006, vol. 04,04.  ASTM D5, Standard Test Method for Penetration of Bituminous Materials. Easton: ASTM , 1997, vol. 04,03.  ASTM D 36, Standard Test Method for SofteningPoint of Bitumen (Ring - and - Ball Apparatus). Easton: ASTM , 2006, vol. 04,04.  HERDA YATI KATMAN, MOHD RASDAN IBRAHIM, MOHAMED REHAN KARIM, SUHANA KOTING, AND NUHA SALIM MASHAAN: “Effect of Rubberized Bitumen Blending Methods on Permanent Deformation of SMA