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Diffusion, social structure and functioning of scientific rural networks: comparison of European and Finish examples
A comparative analysis of two scientific rural networks was made for this study. The national level case study is the Rural Studies Network of Finland and the international case is the European Rural Development Network. Both networks started in 2002. The focus of this study is on comparing the emergence, diffusion and functioning of these two relatively new networks. The experiences and opinions of individual participants of these networks are highlighted instead of territorial aspects. The paper indicates several differences and similarities between case networks relating to the diffusion processes, social structures, functionality and effectiveness of the networks. Successful emergence of rural expert network is an innovative social networking process, which in ideal case results in to a knowledge society of experts who share some common ideas and goals by exploiting and reproducing their social capital.
Europe is experiencing a demographic change, resulting in a change in social structure. People are living longer and birth rates are declining. This changing structure in Europe poses special challenges for housing designers and builders. A new approach in the design of real estate must be created and implemented that caters for the future needs of the occupants of the living space in all phases and allows residents to remain self-sufficient in their "home" for as long as possible. In the earliest stages of design, the typical requirements for each phase of life of future, potential residents must already be considered. This is especially true for people with special protection needs, such as those with visual or hearing impairments.
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Iwona Murawska CDFMR, Beata Przyborowska CMR, Violetta Kopińska CMR and Piotr Błajet CMR
eliminating cultural distance.
2 Settlement type and educational inequalities in Poland
According to sociological reports, people in Poland “differ not only in their place in the socialstructure and related income, professional qualifications, housing standards, diet, health, access to education, participation in culture, or similar features, but also in attitudes and views on religion, politics, the state, the church, the economy, the European Union, etc., etc.” ( Kojder, 2007 ). One extremely durable social division is based on one’s place of residence: city or