Using the humanistic theory of martial arts and martial arts sociology, the author attempts to describe and explain the relationship between social stratification and martial arts. He asks whether a person’s position in the martial arts environment is, today, dependent on social background. He asks: Who could practice with weapons, and which weapons, a hundred years ago? Who can study in the ancient fencing schools today? The analysis includes martial arts in ancient Japan, Europe and Brazil as well as today. He finds that positions originally went to those in the privileged classes or social strata. Today, this does not matter. It can be concluded that there is simply a generational transmission of interest within families. Position in the martial arts, as in many other areas, is part of a person’s long-term effort to determine their own position in society, or “position developed independently”. Martial arts are part of the farreaching democratization and leveling of society. Positions inherited from father to son arise only very rarely. This mainly now happens only in the ancient ancestral schools.
6 References Arum, Richard, Josipa Roska, and Michelle J. Budig. 2008. The Romance of College Attendance: Higher Education Stratification and Mate Selection. Research in SocialStratification and Mobility 26(2): 107–121. Becker, Rolf. 2014. Reversal of Gender Differences in Educational Attainment – Historical Analysis of the West German Case. The Journal of Educational Research 56(2): 184–201. Becker, Rolf. 2009. The Transmission of Educational Opportunities Across Three Generations – Prospects and Limits of the SOEP Data. Schmoller’s Jahrbuch 129(2): 155
The analysis covered girls, aged 9-18, from farmer, farmer-worker and non-farmer rural families inhabiting 4 regions of Poland. Additionally, parents’ education, number of children per family and the wealth of the family were recorded. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of social stratification of the rural population, the economic crisis (1978-1989) and political and economic transition (1989) on the girls’ biological maturation. Age at menarche and body height were used as biological measures of living conditions. In the period 1967-1977 a marked acceleration in maturation and a significant increase in average body height were noted. The study repeated in 1987 demonstrated negative effects of the economic crisis (1977-1989). Research findings from 2001, after the political system transformation, provide evidence ‘compensating for losses’ recorded in girls’ biological condition during the crisis. The diversity of biogeographic and socioeconomic conditions of rural inhabitants in the studied regions is reflected in a marked diversification in age of menarche and body height.
, CA: Sage. Gardiola, C. 2010. HBO Central Europe adapts Israeli show. Shalom life. https://web.archive.org/web/20131104192043/http://www.shalomlife.com/culture/12619/hbo-central-europe-adapts-israeli-show/# (downloaded on: 17 May 2019). Hansen, Kim Toft–Waade, Anne Marit. 2017. Locating Nordic noir. From Beck to The bridge. Palgrave Macmillan. Hess, Andreas. 2001. Concepts of socialstratification. European and American models . New York: Palgrave. 10–36. Kozák, Á.–Veres, E. 2014. Társadalom és rétegződés. In: Hetesi E.–Révész B. (eds), „ Marketing megújulás
This article presents an empirically based examination of how the Norwegian television industry incorporates audience activity and audience-generated material, and of how audiences respond to the opportunities presented. It explores three main research questions: First, how extensive is audience activity on television? Second, to what degree do different television activities correspond to familiar patterns of social stratification? And third, is there any evidence for the view that digital feedback channels, such as SMS and the Web, provide access to television for new groups of people? To investigate these questions, a case study of the Norwegian media market has been carried out, based on two data sets. The extent of audience activity is examined through a representative audience survey conducted during a period of two weeks in 2004. The second data set is a one-week survey of Norwegian television output on the six Norwegian-language channels in 2005.
Growing economic stratification each year in many countries is such a pressing issue that even the World Economic Forum, organized in 2014 in the luxury resort of Davos, recognized it as one of the most dangerous threats to social order. The problem of economic inequality, pushed by the apologists of economic liberalism to the margins of media discourse, once again became a “hot” topic with the World Economic Crisis in 2008, the effects of which are still felt in various countries today, and which contribute to the expansion of global social stratification. The aim of the article is to describe the sample indicators typically used by organizations, i.e. OECD, theWorld Bank to measure economic inequality in the world, and then, on the basis of these indicators, create a synthetic instrument based on TOPSIS methodology, which will allow for preparing a multi-criteria ranking of OECD countries in terms of economic inequality.
This paper addresses conditions of post-suburban urbanisation. Our empirical base is drawn from observations of integration initiatives in the region of the Glatt Valley, a rather undefined area extending from the City of Zurich towards the airport and spreading over a number of small municipalities. Under growth pressure, municipalities are coordinating housing, transportation, and economic activity, and this is generating new post-suburban forms. To understand these processes, qualitative methods were used, relevant documents surveyed, and conversational interviews with actors in the area conducted. A process of infrastructure consolidation was observed, which moved towards integrating functional pathways and optimising capital accumulation, and attracting and catering for business development and high-income earners. To date, the region has proved to be diverse and dynamic, while also furthering certain modes of fragmentation and social stratification. The results reveal post-suburban forms that are place specific and path dependent insofar as they are driven by particular arrangements of governance that emphasise a certain mode of integrative planning. This form of post-suburban growth is also producing new forms of fragmentation.
Following stormy debate regarding the role of globalisation and global space in development, geographical analyses are now tending to return to matters of place, and its role in people’s lives. Given that Latin America’s cities were founded by Europeans, one might expect them to be characterised by processes and phenomena similar to European experiences and general processes of globalisation today. In fact, however, specific socio-cultural features arising from both the colonial and pre-colonial past of this region, political factors (especially that reflecting the presence of powerful elites descended from the Spanish) and economic features (interest in the region’s resources being displayed by foreign investors) have all conspired to ensure that Latin America is characterised by a development trajectory distinct from those in other regions, as well as by contemporary structures in urbanised areas being shaped by diverse political and economic forces, mechanisms ever-present in the region’s culture and politics deriving from social stratification, strong regionalisms, and diversified economic potential and global relationships.
From 2004 till mid-2007, the economics of Latvia experienced fast development, which to some extent was influenced by accessing the European Union (EU), which in its turn provided access to the EU funds and subsequently to significant investment in the country’s development, thus also affecting the topicalities of social security and employment. Because of the world recession, the EU has experienced an economic downfall which hit Latvia and its regions very hard, causing a significant reduction in the economic activity, increase in the unemployment level, and the risk of social stratification. To facilitate the socio-economic development of the regions, to increase the level of welfare in the regions with lower socio-economic development indicators, as well as to prevent the possibility of appearance of unfavourable situations in the future, it is necessary to use correctly the EU funds available in Latvia, including the financing of the European Social Fund (ESF). In the period from 2004 till 2010, the Riga region has acquired 33% of the total ESF financing in the welfare sector, Latgale has the second largest financing - 25%, but the other resources have been acquired in a more or less equal amounts in the other regions: Kurzeme (16%), Zemgale (14%), and Vidzeme (12%). The ESF financing in the welfare sector has influenced the socio-economic indicators of the regions. Functional correlations are observed among the ESF financing in the welfare sector and the value changes in the number of registered unemployed persons, job seekers and the territory development index.
References Barone, C & Schizzerotto, A 2011, ‘Career mobility, education, and intergenerational reproduction in five European societies’, European Societies , vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 331–345. Becker, GS 1975, ‘Human capital, 1964’, National Bureau for Economic Research, New York . Domański, H 2008, ‘Merytokracja w zasadach dystrybucji wynagrodzeń w latach 1982–2005 (Meritocracy and distribution of incomes in 1982–2005) ’ in Zmiany stratyfikacji społecznej w Polsce (Changes in SocialStratification in Poland) , eds H Domański, IFiS Publishers, Warszawa, pp. 153