The article deals with the problem of forming social partnership policy in vocational training of service sector specialists in Germany and Austria. The foreign and domestic pedagogical experience in establishing an effective system of social partnership in vocational education has been analyzed. The author has considered main factors of social partnership development in vocational education that influence the forming of normative and legal support; a multilevel structure of government management, powers of employers and trade unions, regional economic development authorities of local government (industrial, commercial, trade, agricultural units), professional orientation of future specialists vocational education institutions and enterprises where specialists are trained; continuous monitoring of labour market needs and dynamic response to its changes; mechanisms of multivariate and multilevel approach to vocational education funding. Based on the analysis of scientific and reference sources the author has concluded that the main feature of vocational education in Germany and Austria is the participation of social partners who make common decisions and bear responsibility for normative and legal support; a multilevel management structure; monitoring of labour market needs and dynamic response to its changes; an optimal combination of theoretical and practical vocational training of future specialists.
The article gives an overview on the situation of firm-level employee representation in the private sector in Switzerland: Where are they frequent? Which formal status do they enjoy? What are the topics they deal with? How do they position themselves between the affiliation to the firm and the interconnection beyond the limits of the firm? We show that the strong decentralisation of industrial relations in Switzerland leads to regulations and conventions at branch and firm level with a much larger impact on the practice than legal regulations.
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Compared to the European countries, the sociologic research related to religiousness and religious affiliation ranks Romania among the most religious countries, this aspect being proved also by the active positioning of the Church in society, especially in the public space. The verification of the phenomenon may be done also through our research theme, which has a content focused on social work, whose result may be used accordingly. There are publications in the field of social work also containing chapters about the Church as an institution, describing the specific activities with social character (either of philanthropy, or of empirical assistance, or even professionalised social work). Nevertheless, most papers mention the Church only in the description of some historical aspects of social work in Romania. Our topic is new because a research similar to ours has not been conducted in Romania yet, in our opinion, as in all bibliographic sources used in the writing of our paper he have found no research approaching such topics. The entire scientific endeavour starts from the formal systematic and non-systematic collaboration already existing between Churches and DGASPCs, but in order to scientifically validate this hypothesis we chose to conduct also a quantitative analysis of the data collected through a questionnaire with closed questions. The main purpose of our paper is the highlighting of the specificity of the interaction between the Church and the social work practice in Romania, through the existing partnership links between the State and the Church.
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The possibilities for mutual gains in the employment relationship have been subject to much debate by employment relations scholars ( Ackers and Payne, 1998 ; Glover et al., 2013 ; Kelly, 1996 , 2004; Kochan and Osterman, 1994 ). In the Irish context, mutual gains research has centred on the role of voluntary workplace partnership, given its underpinning by national level socialpartnership for some time ( Dobbins and Gunnigle, 2009 ; Roche, 2009 ; Teague and Donaghey, 2009 ). Research has mostly focused on identifying the conditions
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