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and traits as predictors of behavior. Journal of Personality, 51, 308-345 [37] Sierra, F.F., & McQuitty, S. (2005). Service providers and customers: social exchange theory and service loyalty. Journal of Services Marketing, 19(6), 392-400 [38] Susskind A.M., Kacmar, M., & Borchgrevink, C.P. (2003). Customer service providers’ attitudes relating to customer service and customer satisfaction in the customer-service exchange. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 179-187 [39] Susskind A.M., Kacmar, M., & Borchgrevink, C.P. (2007). How organizational standards and coworker

. 56, No. 4, pp. 613-627. Emerson, R. M. (1976), “Social exchange theory”, Annual review of sociology, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 335-362. Esmaeilpour, M., & Bahmiary, E. (2017), “Investigating the impact of environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concern and care for green products”, Management & Marketing, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 297-315. Everitt, B. S. (1975), “Multivariate analysis: The need for data, and other problems”, The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 126, No. 3, pp. 237-240. Fornell, C., & Larcker

Abstract

The European Voluntary Service of the European Union is thought to play a key role in promoting and encouraging volunteering among young people. Integrating the social work of EVS volunteers into activities through sport organizations is believed to help develop the perception of volunteering as an element of social commitment. The aim of this study is to therefore examine a case of youth volunteering practice in an EVS project in Turkey within the context of the benefits of volunteering. Data was collected using various tools. These included semi-structured interviews, participant observation (non-structured), and document analyses. Content analyses were applied to the interview data. The study established that the EVS is a beneficial channel for youth volunteering and provides benefits for each of the parties: the volunteers, the organization, and the sport participants.

: the Role of Value Content and Authorative Parenting. Adolescence , 39(153), 83–100. Putnam, R. D. (1996). The Strange Disappearance of Civic America. A Journal of Public Policy and Ideas , 12 (1), Autumn, 3−15. Rank, M., Le Croy, C. (1983). Toward a Multiple Perspective in Family Theory and Practice: The Case of Social Exchange Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Conflict Theory. Family Relations , 32 (3), 441–448. Roberts, R., Bengston, V. (1999). The Social Psychology of Values: Effects of Individual Development, Social Change, and Family Transmission over

Union study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 27 (3), 310-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1359432x.2018.1444604 Dyne, L. V., & Ang, S. (1998). Organizational citizenship behavior of contingent workers in Singapore. Academy of Management Journal, 41 (6), 692-703. https://doi.org/10.5465/256965 Fan, L., Mahmood, M., & Uddin, M. A. (2019). Supportive Chinese supervisor, innovative international students: a social exchange theory perspective. Asia Pacific Education Review, 20 (1), 101-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12564-018-9572-3 Foote, D. A

Factors Influencing Learners' Satisfaction in an Open E-Learning Environment

A number of new open learning environments have risen aside to common e-learning environments. Wikiversity is an open environment to all community members. Students' behaviours change in the community creation process, and their self-satisfaction impacts learning. The study methodology is qualitative content analysis, and the data is collected from students' blogs, online and focus group interviews. Data is based on a monitored course for bachelor students of special pedagogy (n=21). There was a possibility to test and assess modern e-learning technologies and use a socio-constructive learning process. The results are studied in light of social-exchange theory. The outcome of this study indicated that learners' satisfaction increases with free access to fellow students' works, full and equal membership of the community and an opportunity to compare oneself to the others. The future research should focus on optimization of policies and sustainable development in education to establish successful exchange systems.

Abstract

This study examined the influence of employee empowerment on organizational commitment, and the level to which Tribalism plays a role in the relationship between the former two variables in the context of Islamic banks in Yemen. Indeed, the rationale for introducing employee empowerment is to increase levels of employee’s commitment to ensue positive outcomes. The interrelationships between the variables were analyzed to develop a strategy for increased organizational commitment in the Yemeni Islamic banking sector. This study used a social exchange theory to illustrate the study framework to link the relations between employee empowerment, organizational commitment, and Tribalism. This study relied on quantitative approaches. The study sample comprised of Yemeni Islamic banks’ employees. 450 questionnaires were distributed to employees, out of which, 292 were retrieved and deemed usable for analysis, constituting a 65% rate of response. The partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed to analyze data and test the proposed hypotheses. The results indicated that there is a significant relationship between empowerment of the employees and their organizational commitment in Islamic banks in Yemen. More importantly, this study revealed that Tribalism is a significant mediator on the relationship between employee empowerment, and organizational commitment.

. & DeCotiis, T. A. (2015). Does a good workforce influence restaurant performance or does good restaurant performance influence the workforce? Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 14(4), 339–356 [23] Laperrière, È., Messing, K. & Bourbonnais, R. (2017). Work activity in food service: The significance of customer relations, tipping practices and gender for preventing musculoskeletal disorders. Applied Ergonomics, 58, 89–101 [24] Lee, J. J. (2014). The financial impact of loyalty programs in the hotel industry: A social exchange theory perspective. Journal of

Innovation and Societal Transitions 23: 28-39. Bucher, E., Fieseler, C. and Lutz, C. 2016. What’s mine is yours (for a nominal fee) - Exploring the spectrum of utilitarian to altruistic motives for Internet-mediated sharing. Computers in Human Behavior 62: 316-326. Cook, K. S. and Rice, E. 2006. Social Exchange Theory, In DeLamater, John. The Handbook of Social Psychology p. 53–76. ISBN 978-0-387-36921-1 Deal, J. J., Altman, D.G. and Rogelberg, S.G. 2010. Millennials at work: What we know and what we need to do (if anything). Journal of Business and Psychology 25 (2): 191

fi gures. Retrieved January 26 2016, from http://www.dzs.hr/default_e.htm. Cropanzano, R. & Mitchell, M.S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management. 31(6), 874-900. DOI: 10.1177/0149206305279602. Franičević, V. (2011). Croatia: Prolonged crisis with an uncertain ending. In D. Vaughan-Whitehead (Ed.), Work Inequalities in the Crisis: Evidence from Europe (pp. 143-197). UK: Edward Elgar and International Labour Offi ce. DOI: 10.4337/9780857937513.00011. Galić, Z. & Plećaš, M. (2012). Quality of working life during the