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). Factors Determining Desirability of Entrepreneurship in Romania. Sustainability , 10(11), 1-22. Pollex, J., & Lenschow, A. (2018). Surrendering to growth? The European Union’s goals for research and technology in the Horizon 2020 framework. Journal of Cleaner Production , 197, 1863-1871. Poon, D. (2011). The Emergence and Development of Social Enterprise Sectors . Retrieved from . Preda, G. (2013). The influence of entrepreneurial orientation and market-based organizational learning on the

Specification”, ECMI Brief #19, European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI), Flensburg , available at: (accessed August 8,2018) Diochon, M., and Anderson, A.R. (2009), “Social enterprise and effectiveness: a process typology”, Social Enterprise Journal , Vol. 5, No.1, pp.7-29. Farias, C., and Farias, G. (2010), “Cycles of poverty and consumption: the sustainability dilemma”, Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , Vol.20, No. 3, pp.248-257. Gibson, J. (2016), “Poverty Measurement: We Know Less than

and Nonprofit Organizations 22(1): 93–111. Holenstein, Anne-Marie, Renate Renschler und Rudolf Strahm. 2008. Entwicklung heisst Befreiung: Erinnerungen an die Pionierzeit der Erklärung von Bern (1968–1985) . Zürich: Chronos Verlag. Huybrechts, Benjamin. 2015. Fair Trade and Social Enterprise. S. 230–246 in Handbook of Research on Fair Trade, hrsg. von Laura T. Raynolds und Elizabeth A. Bennett. Cheltenham und Northampton: Edward Elgar. Huybrechts, Benjamin. 2012. Fair Trade Organizations and Social Enterprise: Social Innovation Through Hybrid Organization

References Alamaa C, Le Coq C. (2017). Mixing and Matching: The driving forces behind financing modes of social enterprises. Retrieved from Austin, J., Stevenson, H. and Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different or both? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30, pp. 1-22. Blundel et al. (2014). Scaling and Replication of Social Ventures. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, Volume 5, 146-174. Borzaga C., Defourny J. (2001). From third

Academic references [1] Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship. What Everyone Needs To Know . Oxford University Press. [2] Defourny, J. (2001). From Third Sector to Social Enterprise. In Borzaga, C., Defourny, J., eds., The Emergence of Social Enterprise (pp. 1–18). London: Routledge. [3] Defourney, J., Nyssens, M. (2010). Conception of Social Enterprise and Social Entrepreneurship in Europe and the United States: Convergence and Divergences. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship , 1(1), 32–53. DOI: 10.1080/19420670903442053. [4] Elkington, J

References Estrin, S. (2007). The Impact of Privatization in Transition Economies. New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition, 02-03. doi: 10.1057/9780230226203.1344. European Center for Not-for-Profit Law. (2012). Legal Framework for Social Economy and Social Enterprises: A comparative Report. Retrieved from European Center for Not-for-Profit Law Website: . European Commission Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion. (2013). Social economy and social

Entrepreneurship: Some Important Directions, (online) (accessed 20.4.2015). 5. Cannon, C. (2000), Charity for profit: how the new social entrepreneurs are creating good by sharing wealth, “National Journal”, 16 June, pp.1898-1904. 6. Ciepielewska-Kowalik A., Pieliński B., Starnawska M., Szymańska A. (2015), Looking for Social Enterprise Models in Poland: Institutional and Historical Context, ICSEM Working Papers, No. 2015-11, Liege: The International

economy actions, priority sectors, material flows and value chains. Evans , J. 2013. Circular Economy Toolkit. Retrieved 03-12-14. Frankenberger , K. - Weiblen, T. - Csik, M. - Gassmann , O. 2013. The 4I-framework of business model innovation: A structured view on process phases and challenges. In International Journal of Product Development, 2013. Grassl , W. 2012. Business Models of Social Enterprise: A Design Approach to Hybridity. In ACRN Journal of Entrepreneurship Perspectives, vol. 1, 2012, no. 1, p. 37-60. ISSN 2224-9729. Heikkilä, M. - Heikkilä, J. 2013

46 GfK MIR / Vol. 8, No. 1, 2016 / Interview about the ferrero company Ferrero is an international, family-owned confection- ery company with Italian roots. Founded in 1946 in Alba, Italy, Ferrero today is the third largest chocolate producer and confectionery company in the world. The Ferrero Group has twenty-one production plants, three of which operate within the framework of Social Enterprises. Ferrero products are marketed directly or through authorized distributors in over 160 countries. By 2013/14, the Group had a consolidated sales revenue of €8


This article contains main trends, assumptions and thesis about the social economy in Poland, which the author agree with. The main goal of it, is to bring together fundamental facts depicting the situation of the social economy in Poland (in theory and in practice) with the conditions that must be fulfilled in order for it to grow (also from the financial side). In the article, the aspect of profit in a social enterprise, was especially emphasized. To describe the topic the descriptive methods were used. The graphical analysis refers to the last three years, but to understand how the social economy operates in practice, author uses description of the data from 1999 to now, in this paper.