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The coexistence of people and societies marked by ethnic, social, cultural, religious and linguistic diversity is a subject that still generates controversies in contemporary societies. The “Ciganos’ situation” is an unavoidable issue that crosses the boundaries of different European countries, which leads to controversy and ambivalence in the so-called multicultural and/or intercultural societies characterised by the principle of universalism. In Portugal, despite the social and economic transformations that have occurred, the problems of exclusion and poverty among Ciganos persist. They are still considered the poorest ethnic group, with the worst housing conditions, lest schooling and the main target of racism and discrimination. The Portuguese Ciganos are not a homogeneous community. The diversity and plurality are not always easy to grasp by the glare generated by the adoption of interpretive perspectives that are reductively linear and deterministic of the Portuguese Ciganos. For the purpose of outlining a national picture of Portuguese Ciganos, a national study was developed that combines both qualitative and quantitative methodological approaches. The central goal of this article is to present the main results obtained through a questionnaire survey carried out to Ciganos persons and to discuss the social and spatial continuities and differentiations among Ciganos in Portugal.


Expanding globalization of the world economy has put a strong pressure on individual entities that operate in it. International competitiveness has become a major driving force of economic and social differentiation of the countries. Individual states and their public administrations have to create an effective business environment. This paper reflects these developments and, with the help of relevant multi-criteria (GCI, WCI, DBI) and single-criteria indexes of competitiveness, tries to assess the current state of competitiveness of two regions in Central and Eastern Europe – the Visegrad Four and Baltic Group states, which had a similar starting position on their path to building a market economy and integration into the EU structures.


The 1st-4th c. AD Wielbark culture of Eastern Europe is relatively understudied bioarchaeologically due to the fragmentary nature of its cemeteries. Here, we report the first stable isotope analysis of Wielbark diet using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures from both collagen and carbonate of 30 individuals from Rogowo, a 2nd c. Wielbark cemetery in North-Central Poland. Diet at Rogowo was primarily based on terrestrial foods and included millet, a C4 plant cultivated by many Slavic populations in Europe. Anadromous fish likely supplemented the diet, which is clarified when considering collagen and carbonate data in tandem. Stable isotope differences between the sexes indicate that men and women may have consumed different foods, although there is a possibility that women immigrated to Rogowo from an isotopically different region of Europe. No significant differences are noted in δ13C or δ15N of women with and without grave goods, suggesting little social differentiation within the Wielbark culture, at least in terms of daily food access. Reconstructing human diet in Europe through stable isotope analysis is problematic because of the relative isotopic homogeneity in this region of the world. This study further demonstrates the utility of using both carbonate and collagen stable isotope data in tandem to reconstruct past European diet.

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institutional network is to be built to facilitate adjustment to innovations, especially of participants in labour market, as well as of many professions, businesses and work methods which undergo relevant and essential changes. Another significant risk to innovations is potential technology manipulation, along with a misuse of the power of technology in a number of fields. This is not about cybercrime only, but about risks to the environment and biodiversity as well, or to human health and safety (GMO); 3. Inequality. Innovations accelerate social differentiation and

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