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References Depraz, N. (2001). The Husserlian theory of intersubjectivity as alterology. Emergent theories and wisdom traditions in the light of genetic phenomenology. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8(5-7), 169-178. De Jaegher, H., & Di Paolo, E. (2007). Participatory sense-making: An enactive approach to social cognition. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 6, 485-507. Di Paolo, E. A., Rohde, M., & De Jaegher, H. (2010). Horizons for the enactive mind: Values, social interaction, and play. Enaction: Towards a new paradigm for cognitive science, 33

-lescent psychopharmacology, 2013; 23.2: 123-127 4. Jones R. E., Lopez K.H. Human reproductive biology. Academic Press, 2013; 303. 5. Burbach J.P., Young L.J., Russell J. Oxytocin: synthesis, secretion, and reproductive functions. In: Neill, JD., editor. Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction. Elsevier; New York; 2006. p. 3055-3127. 6. Dale H.H. On some physiological actions of ergot. J Physiol, 1906; 34:163–206. 7. Ross H.E., Young L.J. Oxytocin and the Neural Mechanisms Regulating Social Cognition and Affiliative Behavior, Front Neuroendocrinol, 2009; 30(4): 534–547 8. Kirsch P

. (1996). Towards an anatomy of impoliteness. Journal of Pragmatics , 25 (3), 349–367. Cutler, A. (1974). On saying what you mean without meaning what you say. In M.W. Fox, R.A. Bruck, & A. La Galy (Eds.), Papers from the Tenth Regional Meeting Chicago Linguistic Society (pp. 17–127). Chicago: CLS. Dews, S., Kaplan, J., & Winner, E. (1995). Why not say it directly? The social functions of irony. Discourse Processes , 19 (3), 347–367. Fiske, S.T., Cuddy, A.J., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence. Trends in

Abstract

Children’s self-concept and theory of mind are both important factors in children’s social, cognitive and emotional development. Research on gender differences in children’s theory of mind understanding reveals contradictory findings such as higher degree of social understanding or theory of mind in girls (Villaneuva Badenes, Clemente Estevan, & Garcia Bacete 2000), boys score higher than girls (Russell et al., 2007), or no gender differences at all (Villaneuva Badenes, Clemente Estevan, & Garcia Bacete, 2000). This research study is part of a larger 3-year longitudinal study, investigating children’s social and emotional development during middle childhood. This study explores the gendered relations between self-concept and social understanding (including psychological language) in middle school aged children (n = 49, ages 11-13). Results suggest a negative correlation between boys’ sense of self-worth and psychological language. Implications for curriculum development that promotes socio-emotional literacy within middle school are discussed

Abstract

Objective: to compare the meaning of work for three different samples of people working in private companies and in the public sector in one hand, and living in two different countries: Argentina and the Canary Islands.

Methodology: original semiotics-based methodology

Findings: most of the variables that were ranked in the top three average results match in all three samples; Canarians and Argentineans have a different perspective about the State’s role; Canarian workers prefer social relationships over economic and security aspects while Argentineans prefer job stability due to a job insecurity context in the country.

Value Added: the new methodology helps in organizing thought using abductive logic. It helps understanding the meaning of complex phenomena.

Recommendations: it may be useful for managers and researchers in the area of Management for creating creative answers and solutions through the analysis of facts.

://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12241 Wellman, H.M. (1990). The child´s theory of mind . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Wellman, H.M. (2011). Reinvigorating explanations for the study of early cognitive development. Child Development Perspectives, 5 (1), 33-38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2010.00154.x Wellman, H.M. (2014). Making Minds: How Theory of Mind Develops . New York, NY: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.56.2.161 Wellman, H.M. (2016). Cognición social y educación: teoría de la mente [Social Cognition and Education: Theory of Mind

parent and teacher forms of the SRS-2. It generated scale scores for specific symptom domains (social awareness, social cognition, social communication, social motivation, and autistic mannerisms), as well as a total score that served as an index of severity of social impairment in ASD. Higher total scores on the SRS-2 indicated greater severity of social impairment. The SRS-2 manual reported internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) for the total score for boys as 0.93, and test-retest reliability as 0.85, with 17 months between testing. In the present study, parent

grammaticalization, 385-429. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Papi, Marcella. 2009. Implicitness. In Jef Verschueren & Jan-Ola Östman (eds.), Key notions in pragmatics, 139-162. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Pishwa, Hanna. 2009. Introduction. In Hanna Pishwa (ed.), Language and social cognition. Expression of the social mind, 1-22. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Pishwa, Hanna (ed.) 2009. Language and social cognition. Expression of the social mind. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Radden, Günter & René Dirven. 2007. Cognitive English grammar. Amsterdam

Summary

This article examines the foundations of social experience from a psychoanalytic perspective. In current developmental psychology, social cognition debate, and phenomenology of empathy, it is widely assumed that the self and the other are differentiated from the outset, and the basic challenge is accordingly taken to consist in explaining how the gap between the self and the other can be bridged. By contrast, in the psychoanalytic tradition, the central task is considered to lie in explaining how such a gap is established in the first place. My article develops this latter idea. I focus on the infant’s early experience of care, show how the presence of the caregiver can be interpreted in terms of an interoceptive experience, illustrate the gradual self/other differentiation from this perspective, and thus argue that the other is granted ‘otherness’ gradually. By emphasising this graduality, I challenge the assumption that self/other differentiation dominates the infant’s life from the outset. In this manner, I show how the psychoanalytic theory may be used in contesting one of the cornerstones of the current research paradigm.

social cognition. In R.S. Wyer & T.K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of Social Cognition. Vol. 1 (pp. 1-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Bargh, J.A. (1997). Th e automaticity of everyday life. In R.S. Wyer, Jr. (Ed.), Th e Automaticity of Everyday Life: Advances in Social Cognition. Vol. 10 (pp. 1-61). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Bargh, J.A. (2006). Social Psychology and the Unconscious: Th e Automaticity of Higher Mental Processes. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. Bąk, W. (2009). Wielość ja w ujęciu poznawczym i dialogowym: Proba integracji podejść [Inner multiplicity from cognitive