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., Sikorska J., Kusznierz J. 2008 - Assessment of the size and structure of lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814) population inhabiting a small water body in central Poland - Teka Kom. Ochr. Kszt. Środ. Przyr. - OL PAN 5: 181-189. Zar J. H. 1974 - Biostatistical Analysis - Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New York, 620 p.

distinguishing features of small water bodies]. Zesz Nauk Biol, Geogr i Oceanol. Gdańsk: Uniwersytet Gdański; 1985;14:67-83. [8] Casas J, Toja J, Bonachela S, Fuentes F, Gallego I, Juan M, et al. Water and Environ J. 2011;25(3):308-317. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-6593.2010.00221.x. [9] Chojnacki JC. Podstawy ekologii wód [Foundations of water ecology]. Szczecin: Wyd AR w Szczecinie; 1998. [10] Kajak Z. Hydrobiologia - limnologia. Ekosystemy wód śródlądowych [Hydrobiology - limnology. Ecosystems of inland waters]. Warszawa: Wyd Nauk PWN; 2001:32-33,147-148. [11] Juszczak R, Chojnicki

Beltrame C., 2010 − Beyond scarcity: Citizen science programmes as useful tools for conservation biogeography, Diversity and Distribution , 16, 354-362. 9. Fiedler M., 1997 − Bilanse wodne zlewni śródpolnych oczek wodnych na terenie zdrenowanym/Catchment’s water balances of agriculture small water bodies on a drained area, PhD Disertation, Department of Land Reclamation and Environmental Development UP Poznań, 100. (in Polish) 10. Gibon A., Sheeren D., Monteil C., Ladet S. and Balent G., 2010 − Modelling and simulating change in reforesting mountain landscapes using a

: 9780127447605. [5] Messyasz B, Celewicz-Gołdyn S. Glony w małych zbiornikach. W: Gołdyn R, red. Małe zbiorniki wodne jako ostoja bioróżnorodności (Algae of small water bodies. In: Gołdyn R, editor. Small Water Bodies as a Reservoir of Biodiversity). Poznań: Fundacja Biblioteka Ekologiczna w Poznaniu (Ecological Foundation Library); 2014:p. 20–25. . [6] Sayer C, Andrews K, Shilland E, Edmonds N, Edmonds-Brown R, Patmore I, et al. Aquat Conserv. 2012:22(5):626–38. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2254. [7] Zhu W, Wan L, Zhao L. J


The occurrence of Sympecma paedisca in a small water body in the Limestone Quarry “Górażdże” was recorded in 2010. This site is interesting because of the anthropogenic nature of ecosystem and its location 50 km west of the known range of the species.

. Simulation of ice phenology on Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada. Hydrol. Process ., 16, 18: 3691–3706. Pociask-Karteczka J., Choiński A. 2012. Recent trends in ice cover duration for Lake Morskie Oko (Tatra Mountains, East-Central Europe). Hydrol. Res ., 43, 4: 500–506. Rzętała M. 2012. Funkcjonowanie pokrywy lodowej niewielkiego zbiornika wodnego w Czeladzi w latach 2010-2012. Acta Geogr. Silesiana , nr specjalny 2: 71–76. Rzętała M. 2014. Ice cover development in a small water body in an undrained depression. Int. Multidiscyplinary Sci. Geoconf., 14 th


Basins without outlets, often with a small water body at the bottom, are a characteristic element of a postglacial landscape. Areas nourishing those small landforms belong to the passive part of catchments of hydrographic systems and determine the retentivity of entire drainage basins. The most suitable approach to adopt in research on those objects seems to be the theory of a geoecosystem, a universal methodological conception used in describing geographical regions at various scales. It allows the use of quantitative research methods, and hence parameterisation of their environment. Thus, the geoecosystems of basins without outlets can provide foundations of their dynamic classification.


Several species of the genus Cryptomonas EHRENB. are characterized by the sigmoid (S-shaped) form of their cells under natural conditions. Such species were sampled and studied by the author for decades from the plankton of freshwater lakes, dam reservoirs, fishponds, and peat pools, from among littoral vegetation, as well as in small water bodies overgrown with vegetation. After application of optical microscopes on live or chemically treated specimens, they were measured and depicted. Four species known from literature are demonstrated to be easily determinable, namely Cryptomonas curvata, C. reflexa, C. marssonii, C. gracilis. Two new varieties are described. Cryptomonas borealis is shown as a transient species between straight and sigmoid cells. A special attention is given to the occurrence of pyrenoids and Maupas corpuscles within the cells. The new forma of C. cylindrica is pictured and described, with the antapex of the cells deformed differently from sigmoid species.


Environmental status of Kam’yanske reservoir (47°55′51.6″N 33°46′08.4″E) as one of the small water bodies belonging to southeast Ukraine was investigated. The integrated environmental assessment based on the quality indices of salt content, trophic–saprobiological indicators and specific toxic water indicators of Kam’yanske reservoir are characterised as ‘satisfactory’ and ‘slightly polluted’. Defined bottom accumulation coefficient (BAC) shows continuing heavy metals enlargement in the upper layer of the bottom sediments and chronic pollution in ecosystem. The content of heavy metals in the muscles of industrial fish in the researched pond did not exceed maximal allowed concentration (MAC) for fish as food according to Ukrainian standards. Accumulation of heavy metals in fish was due to the peculiarities of their ways of nutrition and existing. The total contents of heavy metals in common carp was almost twice as large compared to other fish. The maximum accumulation rates set for fish muscles of essential elements – zinc and iron.


The study was conducted in 2016-2017 in the Podkielecki Landscape Protection Area (area 26,485 ha). It was focused on the occurrence and distribution of amphibians and reptiles, the biology of the selected species and the existing threats.

Established in 1995, the Podkielecki Landscape Protection Area surrounds the city of Kielce from the north, east and south-east, and adjoins several other protected areas. It covers the western part of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (part of the Klonowskie and Masłowskie ranges) and the southern part of the Suchedniów Plateau. The studied area is mostly covered by forest and thicket communities (48.1%) and farmlands (39.9%), followed by built-up areas (7.8%), industrial areas (0.5%), roads and railways (2.7%), and surface water bodies (1%).

The protected area is developed mainly on Palaeozoic rocks, including Cambrian and Ordovician sandstones, Silurian and Carboniferous shales, and Devonian marls. Podzolic soils predominate among soils. The largest rivers include Lubrzanka, Czarna Nida, Bobrza and Belnianka. There are no natural lakes within the PLPA limits, and the largest artificial reservoirs include the Cedzyna Reservoir, Morawica Reservoir, Suków Sandpit and two sedimentation reservoirs of the Kielce Power Plant. The area includes 2 nature reserves: Barcza and Sufraganiec.

The following amphibian species were recognised during the investigations within the borders of the studied area: alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris Laur., great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina L., common spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus Laur., common toad Bufo bufo L., natterjack toad Epidalea calamita Laur., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., and common frog Rana temporaria L. The reptiles were represented by sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. The study also included the phenology and breeding biology of the common toad and common frog.

The most crucial herpetofauna conservation problems identified here include amphibians killed on roads by vehicles. The study area is intersected by very busy roads, in particular: European route no. E77, national roads nos. 73, 74 and S74, and regional roads nos. 745, 750 and 764. For this reason, future road reconstruction projects should consider the assembly of various crossing roads for wildlife, particularly on the 600 m long section of national road no. 74 near Cedzyna Reservoir. Other threats include illegal waste dumping, pollution of surface waters, fire setting, overgrowing and desiccation of small water bodies.