B engtsson M.G., 1993, Genetic algorithms , URL http://library.wolfram.com/infocenter/MathSource/569/
 C heng Y., Location of critical failure surface and some further studies on slopestability analysis , Computers and Geotechnics, 2003, 30(3), 255–267.
 C heng Y., L i L., C hun C hi S., W ei W., Particle swarm optimization algorithm for the location of the critical noncircular failure surface in two-dimensional slopestability analysis , Computers and Geotechnics, 2007, 34(2), 92–103.
 D as S
The article focuses on the use of the meshfree numerical method in the field of slope stability computations. There are many meshfree implementations of numerical methods. The article shows the results obtained using the meshfree localized Petrov-Galerkin method (MLPG) – localized weak-form of the equilibrium equations with an often used elastoplastic material model based on Mohr-Coulomb (MC) yield criterion. The most important aspect of MLPG is that the discretization process uses a set of nodes instead of elements. Node position within the computational domain is not restricted by any prescribed relationship. The shape functions are constructed using just the set of nodes present in the simple shaped domain of influence. The benchmark slope stability numerical model was performed using the developed meshfree computer code and compared with conventional finite element (FEM) and limit equilibrium (LEM) codes. The results showed the ability of the implemented theoretical preliminaries to solve the geotechnical stability problems.
In the paper, the slope stability problem of the Kościuszko Mound in Cracow, Poland is considered. The slope stability analysis was performed using Plaxis FEM program. The outer surface of the mound has complex geometry. The slope of the cone is not uniform in all directions, on the surface of the cone are pedestrian paths. Due to its complicated geometry it was impossible to do computing by Plaxis input pre-procesor. The initial element mesh was generated using Autodesk Autocad 3D and next it was updated by Plaxis program. The soil parameters were adopted in accordance with the detailed geological soil testing performed in 2012. Calculating model includes geogrids. The upper part was covered by MacMat geogrid, while the lower part of the Mound was reinforced using Terramesh Matt geogrid. The slope analysis was performed by successives reduction of φ /c parameters. The total multiplayer ΣMsf is used to define the value of the soil strength parameters. The article presents the results of slope stability before and after the rainfall during 33 days of precipitation in flood of 2010.
Abramson, L.W., Lee, T.S., Sharma, S. & Boyce, G.M., 2001. SlopeStability and Stabilisation Methods , 2 nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 736 pp.
Dobak, P. & Pinińska, J., 1987. Zmienność parametrów geotechnicznych w wrunkach budowy metra w Warszawie [Variability of geotechnical parameters in the course of construction of the Warsaw underground]. Przegląd Geologiczny 2, 73–79 (in Polish with English summary).
Duncan, J. M. & Wright, S. G., 2005. Soil strength and slopestability. John Wiley & Sons, 312 pp.
Justyna Adamczyk, Marek Cała, Jerzy Flisiak, Malwina Kolano and Michał Kowalski
 Geological documentation of Magura Sandstone “Osielec”, 1959, (in Polish).
 Geological documentation of Magura Sandstone deposit “Osielec”, 1972, (in Polish).
 Annex no. 2 to Geological documentation of Magura Sandstone deposit “Osielec”, 1986, (in Polish).
 Technical documentation waste dump no. 1, Jan. 2008, (in Polish).
 The map of Magura Sandstone “Osielec” (scale 1:2000), state for 31.12.2011, (in Polish).
 CAŁA M., Slope
In the assessment of slope stability, the vertical component of acceleration is commonly neglected. However, signal analyses performed on a large number of acceleration time histories have revealed that the vertical peak ground acceleration can be as high as the horizontal one. In this paper, a method of slope stability analysis regarding the vertical component of acceleration is proposed. It considers a rigid body system affected by the acceleration time histories in both horizontal and vertical directions. In a general case, the strength of the contact between acceleration components is time dependent. Parametric analysis was performed on the basis of cyclic harmonic loading, assuming a safety criterion in the form of permanent displacement. The results, for both harmonic and real acceleration time histories, were compared with the results of the commonly used Newmark’s sliding block approach, which revealed significant differences in permanent displacements calculated by the two methods.
Arellano D., Stark T. D. (2000) Importance of three-dimensional slopestability analysis in practice, [in:] Griffiths D. V. et al (Editors), SlopeStability 2000 , GSP No. 101, Reston, ASCE, 18–32.
Bober L., Thiel K., Zabuski L. (1997) Zjawiska osuwiskowe w polskich Karpatach fliszowych – geologiczno-inżynierskie właściwosci wybranych osuwisk , IBW PAN, Gdansk (in Polish).
Bober L., Zabuski L. (1993) Flysch Slope Classification from Viewpoint of the Landslide Prediction, Proc. Int. Symp. Geotechnical Eng. of Hard Soils-Soft Rocks
Dagmar Dobiašová, Jozef Streďanský and Lucia Tátošová
The formation or activation of landslide movements in Podtatranska kotlina is quite common, as it is flysh and volcanic area. There is a high incidence of sandstones in this area. The sandstones crumble and weather, and this is the reason why the subsoil becomes unstable. The rainfall is accumulated, and there is a danger of soil sliding down. There was located groundwater level in the central part of the slope (in the height of 30 cm), and in some parts, the water accumulation occurred in the depression places on the landslide body. There were created small landslide lakes, where the water was held during the year. The slope was soaked and the erosion started to increase. The slope with its instability has pushed the construction of road that leads underneath the heel of the slope. Neglected and improper construction in areas of slope landslides has become a relatively common phenomenon. Stabilization measures are often made up only when real problem occurs. An anthropogenic activity usually starts this problem. This refers to deforestation, grassing or deformation of slope stability in the heel by improper construction. The landslide was not the first one in the area. In 1898, there was the first landslide, but it was not as intensive as this one. Retaining wall was the only one stabilization measure which was built in that time. It also had a drainage outfall. However, during the summer months in 2010, the stabilization measure was disrupted and cracked. This occurrence started after the slope separation and by the foremost pressure on the given wing wall. During our measurements, we found out that in that area, there was a loss of plant cover, erosion accrued and soil physical properties changed. Our aim is to show the seriousness of the situation and propose appropriate stabilizing measures.
dimensioning slopes, based on the theory of plasticity, the methods of limit stress state and engineering methods of limit equilibrium are dominant. In a static context, the theory of limit states allows to determine relations between shape of the slope, limit load of the overburden and stress state in the whole massif. The kinematic method consists of searching for permitted fields of deformation velocity, which correspond to various flow mechanisms [ 7 ].
Methods of limit equilibrium are included in the fundamental analysis methods of slopestability, which are used in
Counterfort drains are one of the oldest methods of improving slopestability by controlling the groundwater level on the one hand [ 1 ] and by applying an extra load on the side of retaining forces on the other hand [ 2 ]. Lowering the groundwater level by means of counterfort drains reduces the pore water pressure, thus increasing the effective soil shear strength along potential failure planes [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. A system of counterfort drains in a slope significantly increases its stability at moderate construction costs [ 3 , 5 , 6