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, Sobiecki J. 2014. Long-term changes in body composition and prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls (aged 3-18) from Kraków (Poland) from 1983, 2000 and 2010. Ann Hum Biol 41(5):415-27. Kowal M, Woronkowicz A, Kryst Ł, Sobiecki J, Pilecki MW. 2016. Sex differences in prevalence of overweight and obesity, and in extent of overweight index in children and adolescence (3-18 years) from Kraków, Poland in 1983, 2000 and 2010. Public Health Nutr 19(6):1035-46. Kryst Ł, Bilińska I, Kowal M, Woronkowicz A, Sobiecki J. 2017. Long-term changes in skinfolds thickness in

. 2011. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in children: A study in government primary schools in Rabat, Morocco. Archives of Medical Research 42:703-8. Chinn S, Rona RJ. 1994. Trends in weight-forheight and triceps skinfold thickness for English and Scottish children, 1972-and 1982-1990. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 8:90-106. Clayton B. 1994. Department of Health. Eat well an action plan from the nutrition task force to achieve the health of the nation targets on diet and nutrition. In: the health of Nation, London 1994:44. Coward WA. 1990. Calculation of pool size and


Objectives: The focus of this study is on anthropometric characteristics of footballers in the Republic of Macedonia, and the aim is to provide normative data for selected anthropometric parameters for adult male footballers in our country.

Material and method: The study included eight hundred (800) adult male footballers, aged 24.06 ± 4.8y (age range 18–35y), who have undertaken routine sport medical examinations over a ten-year period. The football players were divided into six age – specific subgroups (“up to 20”; “up to 22”; “up to 24”; “up to 26”; “up to 28” and “over 28” years). Anthropometric measurements were made by Matiegka's protocols and body composition components were determined.

Results: Average values of body height (178.8 ± 6.7 cm), body weight (77.72 ± 7.9 kg), lean body mass (66.21 ± 6.36 kg), body components (MM% = 53.04; BM% = 17.15; FM% = 14.7%) and a large series of anthropometric measurements which define the footballers' anthropometric dimensions were obtained. The distribution of the adipose tissue regarding the body and limbs showed that the skinfolds were thickest on the lower limbs and thinnest on the arms.

Conclusions: The adult football players in Republic of Macedonia were insignificantly variable in height and body mass from their counter parts from European and American teams. The football players up to 20 year, who played in the senior national football league were lighter and smaller than their older colleagues. The football players aged from 20 to 35 years were insignificantly variable in height, body mass, and anthropometric dimensions of limbs and trunk.


The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues.


Background: The complex study of adipose tissue in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is of importance for the clinical course and prognosis of the disease.

Aim: To study the distribution of adipose tissue in Bulgarian females with T2DM.

Patients and methods: The study included 92 women with T2DM (age range 40-60 years). The control group consisted of 40 age-matched women. Measurement parameters: height, weight, 9 skinfolds (sf) – sfTriceps, sfBiceps brachii, sfForearm, sfSubscapular, sfXrib, sfAbdomen, sfSuprailiaca, sfThigh, and sfCalf; bioelectrical impedance analysis - % body fat tissue and visceral fat tissue. Calculated indexes: body mass index (BMI), the ratio sfTrunk to sfLimbs, the ratio skin folds upper half of body/skin folds lower half of body, fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass.

Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the means of sfTriceps, sfXrib, sfThigh, sfCalf, % body fat tissue, visceral fat tissue, and fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass between the diabetic and healthy women. The body composition of diabetic females aged 40-60 years contained a larger adipose component than controls. Visceral adipose tissue which determines the body composition is a reliable indicator of the health risks in diabetic women.

Conclusion: The pattern of subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in diabetic females aged 40-60 yrs was primarily in the upper torso region and less so in the limbs. In the controls adipose tissue is accumulated primarily in the limbs and in the lower part of the body.


The study is aimed at evaluation of the effect of regular physical activity on total and subcutaneous body fat and its distribution in boys aged 10 to 16 years. A three-year longitudinal study was carried out in order to monitor physical development in 237 boys from sports schools and regular schools in Warsaw, Poland. The boys were selected so that their rate of puberty changes was similar based on evaluation of voice and facial hair. The authors measured 5 skinfolds in the following sites: triceps, calf, subscapular, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds. The percentage fraction of total body fat in body mass was measured by means of Tanita TBF 300 electronic body composition analyser. A limb fat to trunk fat ratio (LF/TF) was also calculated in order to evaluate the type of distribution of subcutaneous fat in boys and monitor its changes as affected by regular high physical activity throughout puberty. Lower total body fat and subcutaneous fat in boys from sports schools was the effect of considerably higher physical activity. It was demonstrated that with some minimal values of total body fat and subcutaneous fat, physical activity did not cause a reduction in body fat. It was found that elevated physical activity in boys is conducive to development of a more limb-oriented (peripheral) fatness, which is more favourable to human health


Study aim: The body structure can play a determining role in the achievement of top judo performance, and it seems to influence the type of techniques applied. The aim of this study is to determine the somatotypes in male and female national level judokas across weight categories in order to observe possible differences among athletes.

Material and methods: A total of 61 male judokas (23.2 ± 2.7 years old) and 37 female judokas (22.3 ± 3.3 years old) participated in this study. Anthropometric variables were used to calculate somatotypes. Somatotypes were determined according to the Heath-Carter method. Analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc test were used to determine differences between weight categories and obtained effect sizes (η2) were presented as well.

Results: Somatotype differences among weight categories in male and female judokas were observed. Generally, all categories could be classified in three somatotypes in male and female athletes.

Conclusions: The lightest categories were recognized as mesomorphic ectomorphs in females with an exception in the –48 kg category, and ectomorphic mesomorphs in male athletes. The middle ones had the endomorphic mesomorph somatotype and the heaviest athletes presented somewhat more extreme cases of endomorphic mesomorphs, both in male and female judokas. According to the results obtained, judokas have a specific body composition in different weight categories. Therefore, coaches could create a specific training programme for athletes who belong to different somatotypes.


The present study analyzed the changes in body composition and physical performance in wheelchair basketball (WB) players during one competitive season. Players from a WB team competing in the first division of the Spanish League (n = 8, age: 26.5 ± 2.9 years, body mass: 79.8 ± 12.6 kg, sitting height: 91.4 ± 4.4 cm) participated in this research. The upper limbs showed a decrease in subcutaneous adipose tissue and there was an improvement in physical abilities such as sprinting with the ball (5 and 20 m), handgrip and aerobic capacity. However, the changes in physical fitness concerning sprinting without the ball and agility tests were low. It would be interesting to study the effects of implementing specific programs to improve physical performance in WB and to establish more test sessions to monitor the effects of the programs followed.

lipoproteins from human serum by precipitation with polyanions. J Lipid Res. 1970;11:583-595. 17. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 972;18:499- 502. 18. Freedman DS, Katzmarzyk PT, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of BMI and skinfold thicknesses to risk factors among young and middle-aged adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Ann Hum Biol. 2010;37(6):726-37. 19. Samue K, Allison DB, Heymsfield SB, Kelley DE, Leibel RL, Nonas C

JA. 2017. Percentage of body fat in adolescents with Down syndrome: Estimation from skinfolds. Disab Health J 10:100-4. Griffiths LJ, Sera F, Cortina-Borja M, Law C, Ness A, Dezateux C. 2016. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time: Cross-sectional and prospective associations with adiposity in the Millennium Cohort Study. BMJ Open 6:e010366. Gültekin T, Akin G, Ozer BK. 2005. Gender differences in fat patterning in children living in Ankara. Anthropol Anz 63:427-37. Guo B, Wu Q, Gong J, Xiao Z, Tang Y, Shang J, Cheng Y, Xu H. 2016. Gender