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Despite the absence of the long-term tradition of inter-municipal cooperation in Lithuania, the country represents a compelling case of cooperative solutions which are mostly focused on public services delivery design imposed by the central government. The article provides theoretical and empirical insights on the inter-municipal cooperative capacities and their scope in the case of Lithuania, with reference to the size of the municipality. The results reveal that the large size municipalities are more likely to benefit from collaborative arrangements in comparison to small size municipalities which have less institutional ability for collaboration. In this respect, the external influences imposed by the central authorities’ agenda on implementing economy of scale principles and strong municipal service delivery regulations is extremely important for understanding the municipal efforts for collaboration.


Slovenia has only one tier of sub-national government, that is, municipalities. Currently, there are 212 municipalities, and they exhibit the same responsibilities they need to provide to their residents, regardless of their size, and these differences in size are even in the range 1:100. The new national strategy for the development of local self-government has, therefore, stressed the necessity to promote cooperation among municipalities and even potential mergers, not just to ensure cost-effectiveness but also to increase the capacity of municipalities to perform various developmental tasks. Consequently, the aim of the article is to analyse the evolution and factors driving inter-municipal cooperation and municipal mergers, where Slovenia is taken as an example, and case study approach is used in this manner. The results of the analysis indicate that territorial fragmentation at the local level has been accompanied by the increase in the inter-municipal cooperation, although some time lag can be observed. Moreover, the increase in the cooperation can be observed in particular with the onset of economic slowdown and fiscal stress emergence. The results also portray that substantial territorial rescaling cannot be expected in the near future, as suggested by the analysis of driving factors that should contribute to this process, as well as by rather weak ability of central government to promote the process. Consequently, from the practical perspective, we might expect larger role of more in-depth trans-scaling strategies as a mechanism to overcome the problem of sub-optimal size of municipalities in Slovenia.


The retailing sector seems to be rather sensitive to social and economic developments in a society. In contrast to global retail network trends, specific processes may be observed in some lagging regions in post-communist countries. In the article attention is paid to spatial changes in food and non-food retailing locations in the region of Gemer, one of the least developed regions of post-communist Slovakia. The retailing network transformation between 1996 and 2012 was measured by applying retail capacity calculations for surplus or deficit, related to the population size of municipalities within the region. In the article, we examine food and non-food retail locations in the Gemer region with a special focus on spatial changes (urban vs rural) as well as temporal and trends based on retail capacity growth indices. In conclusion, the findings suggest that rural food and non-food retailing businesses have gone through considerable change and that it is not in harmony with the globalisation processes visible in the urban environment. Specifically, retail capacities (both food and nonfood) in the Gemer region are witnessing a period of growth.


Community pharmacies play an important role in the process of ensuring public health. Pharmacists provide pharmaceutical care that includes acquiring, storing, preparing, reviewing and dispensing medicines, medical devices and dietary food to the inhabitants; providing them with information and advice; acquiring, storing and dispensing additional assortment; carrying out physical and biochemical testing for primary prevention and monitoring of drug efficacy and safety. At present, there are constant changes which have direct or potential and often negative impact on community pharmacies. For providing affordable and good quality pharmaceutical care, it is important to continuously monitor and analyse the developments in the financial data in community pharmacy business management. The data file from 2009-2014 on financial performance of selected community pharmacies were obtained from the Register of Financial Statements at Ministry of Finance Slovak Republic. A group of 194 community pharmacies were selected that represented more than 10 percent of all pharmacies. The selection criteria respected the territorial division of the Slovak Republic on districts, the size of municipalities (cities and villages) and location (at or near health centres, shopping centres, housing estates, etc.). The evaluation parameters were gross profit, net profit, revenue from sales of goods and services, operating expenses, total assets, inventory, short-term receivables, total receivables, financial assets, owner’s equity, total liabilities, current liabilities and their characteristics (25th, 50th, 75th percentile, minimum, maximum, mean). The financial parameters obtained and their characteristics presented the basic information on the management of community pharmacies. The data also provided information for further assessment on factors that might have an impact on their value and direction of evolution.

. C. 1991. The Economics of Industries and Firms: Theories, Evidence and Policy . London: Routledge. Schofield, John A. 1978. “Determinants of Urban Service Expenditures: Fire and Social Services.” Local Government Studies 4, 65–80. Sharpe, J. 1995. “Local Government: Size, Efficiency and Citizen Participation.” In Michael Martins (ed.). The Size of Municipalities, Efficiency and Citizen Participation . Strasbourg: Local and Regional Authorities in Europe, Council of Europe, 56. Stigler, George J. 1958. “Economies of Scale.” The Journal of Political Economy

project investigates the acquaintance of the public with mediation, identifies the ways how the public obtains information and sets efficient standards and practices to improve mediation acquaintance in the Czech Republic. Empirical data was collected in November 2018 in a public survey. The CAWI method of data collection was based on selected sample of adult Czechs representative by age, gender, education, region and size of municipality. The STEM/MARK research agency collected the data, meeting the quality criteria of the SIMAR and ESOMAR associations and MSP rating

). Zastupitelé českých měst a obcí v evropské perspektivě . Prague: SLON, 22 – 40. Sedmihradská, L. and E. Bakoš. 2016. “Municipal Tax Autonomy and Tax Mimicking in Czech Municipalities.” Lex Localis: Journal of Local Self-Government 14(1), 75 – 92. Sharpe, L. J. 1995. “Local Government: Size, Efficiency and Citizen Participation.” In The Size of Municipalities, Efficiency and Citizen Participation. Local and Regional Authorities in Europe (56). Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Soukopová, J., F. Ochrana; D. Klimovský and B. M. Meričková. 2016. “Factors Influencing the

-sized, and municipalities over 1,000 and under 2,000 inhabitants as large. Table 1 Number of rural municipalities and inhabitants by the size of municipalities in the Czech Republic in selected years. Population size 2000 2017 municipalities inhabitants municipalities inhabitants Very small municipality up to 199 1,736 212,229 1,432 178,327 Small municipality 200–499 1,99 646,195 1,992 650,76 Medium-sized municipality 500–999 1,249 874,812 1,379 974,837 Large municipality 1 000–1 999 651 902,359 755 1,052,794 Countryside 5,626 2,635,595 5,558 2,856,718 Municipalities in

municipalities are comparatively larger in population size than Bohemian ones ( Bernard & Kostelecký 2010 ) and they also generally perceive themselves as having a strong cultural and identity ( Perlín et al. 2010 ). They score high on social capital and participation ( Pileček & Jančák 2010 ). Furthermore, the media coverage of Moravian splits was higher while it was difficult to get any information from local media about splits in Bohemian regions. Municipal splits are thus quite freely discussed in Moravia. The traditional culture and bigger size of municipalities can

citizens having voted against the split (e.g., in 2009 an initiative was made to establish six new municipalities by dividing a large urban municipality, Koper, but it was not supported by the citizens). According to size, the splits produced small municipalities (see Table 1 ), most with fewer than 5,000 inhabitants and some with 5,000–10,000 inhabitants. Table 1 Sizes of municipalities after every split No. of inhabitants No. of municipalities (%) 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Fewer than 5,000 51 34.7 95 49.48 94 48.7 111 52.86 111 52.1 5,001–10,000 39 26.53 42 21.88 46 23