Daiga Bauze, Linda Piekuse, Laura Kevere, Zane Kronberga, Arnis Riževs, Iveta Vaivade, Kristīne Vīksne, Raisa Andrēziņa and Baiba Lāce
Several genetic loci in chromosomes 11 and 15 have recently been associated with non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in populations from North America and Europe. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such an association exists in a Latvian population. Ninety-five patients with ASD in the age range 3–20 years (mean age 8 years, SD 3.18) participated in the study. The control group consisted of 161 healthy, non-related individuals without ASD randomly selected from the Latvian Genome Database. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) — rs11212733, SNP rs1394119, rs2421826, rs1454985 — were genotyped by the TaqMan method. Allele frequency differences between ASD patients and control subjects were compared for each SNP using a standard chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05 for nominal association. Only the genetic marker rs11212733, localised on the long arm of chromosome 11 in locus 22.3, was found to be strongly associated with the ASD patient group (χ2 6.982, Padjusted 0.033, odds ratio 1.625). Our data demonstrating a significant relationship between the SNP rs11212733 and the development of ASD in a Latvian population suggest that it is not a population-specific relationship. Thus, future studies focusing on the DDX10 gene and related genetic loci are needed.
Marica Pavkovic, Rosica Angelovic, Marija Popova-Simjanovska, Oliver Karanfilski, Slobodanka Trpkovska-Terzieva, Tatjana Sotirova, Lidija Cevreska and Aleksandar Stojanovic
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Kreetachon Veerakikosol, Pajaree Chariyavilaskul, Natavudh Townamchai and Supeecha Wittayalertpanya
individualized dosage is required to achieve optimum C 0 levels. A major factor affecting dosage variations is genetic polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes.
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Vivi Yuskianti, Fa Xin Huang, Bian Xiang Zhang and Susumu Shiraishi
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Anastasiya G. Trenova, Georgi S. Slavov, Maria G. Manova, Lyuba D. Miteva and Spaska A. Stanilova
The changes in cognitive functions that occur with aging and in various pathological conditions are a subject of growing interest. Experimental and clinical data justify the hypothesis about the influence the immune system exerts on cognitive processes. The balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines has been established as a necessary factor for normal cognitive functioning. Cytokine production is under strong genetic control and various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytokine genes have been described. As cytokine SNPs have been demonstrated to affect the gene expression or the functional activity of the immune protein this logically led to the suggestion about the role of these polymorphisms in cognitive functioning. Studies exploring the association between different genetic variants of cytokine gene polymorphisms and cognitive abilities in healthy subjects and in demented patients show divergent results. The review of relevant literature suggests that SNPs implement their effect on cognition in large interactions with each other, as well as with many other factors, some of which still remain to be identified. This article summarizes the contemporary knowledge about the correlations between SNPs in cytokine genes and cognitive status in humans. Further research is needed to determine the precise role and the molecular mechanisms of action of the SNPs in cognitive processes.
P. Noveski, M. Mircevska, T. Plaseski, B. Peterlin and D. Plaseska-Karanfilska
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Jie Wang, Guowu Li, Mauricio A. Elzo, Linjun Yan, Shiyi Chen, Xianbo Jia and Songjia Lai
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Reza Talebi, Ahmad Ahmadi, Fazlollah Afraz, Julien Sarry, Florent Woloszyn and Stéphane Fabre
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Liu S.F., Jiang Y