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References AOAC (1998). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 16th Edition, Washington D. C., USA. Aydin G., Grant R. J., O'Rear J. (1999). Brown midrib sorghum in diets for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 82 (10): 2127-2135. Berenji J., Dahlberg J. (2004). Perspectives of sorghum in Europe. J. Agron. Crop. Sci., 190: 33-338. Bolsen K. K. (2004). Sorghum Silage: A Summary of 25 Years of Research at Kansas State University. Proc.: The Southwest Dairy Herd Management Conference, Macon, Georgia, USA, pp. 16-17. Cole C. A

REFERENCE 1. Rodrigues I and Naehrer K: A Three-Year Survey on the Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feedstuffs and Feed. Toxins., 2012, 4:663-75. 2. Flores-Flores ME, Lizarraga E, de Cerain AL, González-Peñas E: Presence of mycotoxins in animal milk: A review. Food Control, 2015, 53:163-176. 3. Skaug Marit: Analysis of Norwegian milk and infant formulas for ochratoxin A. Food additives and contaminants, 1999, 16:75-8. 4. Ogunade IM, Martinez-Tuppia C, Queiroz OCM, Jiang Y, Drouin P, Wu F, Vyas D, Adesogan AT: Silage review: Mycotoxins in silage: Occurrence

. & Sheng, C. (2010). Optimization of dry anaerobic fermentation of solid organic wastes. Adv. Mater. Res . 113-116, 740-743. 10.4028/ 5. Schäfer, W., Letho, M. & Teye, F. (2006). Dry anaerobic digestion of organic residues on-farm - a feasibility study. MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Reports 77, 98. 6. Linke, B., Miersch, S. & Gegner, M. (2002). High - solids fermentation in silage bag. Biogas association e.V. (Hrsg.) Reports from 11th Annual Conference of Biogas Association in Borken, Conference Report 2002: Biogas is a universal


The paper focuses on the analysis of compliance with the technological discipline in silage quality assessment based on sampling the silage wall using thermal imaging and penetrometer method for silage compaction. Experimental measurements were done in a selected company, which has built a silage trough with a capacity of 6,624 m3, in which the maize (hybrid KWS – KALIFF FAO 440) with a 36% solids content was ensiled. A thermal camera ThermoPro TM TP8S IR and cone penetrometer Eijkelkamp were used for measurements. The results obtained suggest that also undesirable heating was found in the sampling area, since the maximum temperature at some places in the depth of 0.5 m reached a temperature of 36.4 °C. According to regression and correlation analysis, we found direct linear relationship between penetration resistance and penetration depth in a 6 m and 1.5 m height (R = 0.938 respectively R = 0.970).


The development of the production of poultry meat is connected with an increase in the quantity of the manure. The chemical characteristics predisposes this waste to processing by methane fermentation method. This study investigated the influence of ammonia and volatile fat acids on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry manure. The aim of the studies was: to determine the degree of biodegradation of the poultry manure as well as manure and corn silage mixed in various proportions in the process of mesophilic fermentation, to evaluate the impact of mineral nitrogen and volatile fat acids on the course of fermentation, and to establish optimum proportions of these types of waste. The tests confirmed the positive effect of co-fermentation of poultry manure with corn silage. The most favourable ratio for mixing the substrates is the equal percentage of their dry matter in the mixture. With such waste mixing proportions, the degree of degradation of organic substances contained in the manure amounted to 61.8% and was higher than in the mono-digestion of manure and corn silage.

REFERENCES Andrae JG, Hunt CW, Pritchard GT, Kennington LR, Harrison JH, Kezar W, Mahanna W (2001): Effect of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of maize silage on intake and digestibility by beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 79, 2268–2275. doi: 10.2527/2001.7992268x. AOAC (2005): Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18 th Ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg. Barriere Y, Emile JC, Traineau R, Surault F, Briand M, Gallais A (2004): Genetic variation for organic matter and cell wall digestibility in silage maize. Lessons from a 34

dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 76: 165. Brzóska F., Sala K., Kryszczak M. (1994). Effect of mineral and organic acid salts mix­ture on fermentation profiles and silage chemical composition (in Polish). Rocz. Nauk. Zoot., 21: 215-226. Brzóska F., Wiewiora W., Gąsior R., Brzóska B. (1995 a). Effect of chemical preservatives on the nutritional values of grass silages, cow productivity and milk composition (in Polish). Rocz. Nauk. Zoot., 22: 149-162. Brzóska F., Zyzak W., Sala K. (1995 b). Effect of mixtures of organic acid and mineral acid salts nutritive value of grass

and Biomass Productivity. Pol J Environ Stud., 18: 563-568. Bartoň L., Kudrna V., Bureš D., Zahradkova D., Teslik V. (2007). Performance and carcass quality of Czech Fleckvieh, Charolais and Charolais × Czech Fleckvieh bulls fed diets based on different types of silages. Czech. J. Anim. Sci., 52: 269–276. Bartoň L., Bureš D., Kudrna V. (2010). Meat quality and fatty acid profile of the musculus longissimus lumborum in Czech Fleckvieh, Charolais and Charolais × Czech Fleckvieh bulls fed different types of silages Czech. J. Anim. Sci., 55: 479–487. CIE 1978

References [1] Yitbarek MB, Tamir B. Silage additives: Review. Open J Appl Sci. 2014;4:258-74. DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.45026. [2] Mohd-Setapara SH, Abd-Talibb N, Azizb R. Review on crucial parameters of silage quality. APCBEE Procedia. 2012;3:99-103. DOI: 10.1016/j.apcbee.2012.06.053. [3] Nkosi BD, Meeske R. Effects of ensiling totally mixed potato hash ration with or without a heterofermentative bacterial inoculant on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, growth performance and digestibility in lambs. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2010;161:38-48. DOI: 10.1016/j

with Albizia saman pods. In: Animal Agriculture and the Global Food Challenges . Proc. 34th Annual Conf. Nig. Soc. for Animal Production, pp. 544-546. Bradbury M.G., Egan S.V., Bradbury J.H. (1999): Determination of all forms of cyanogens in cassava roots and cassava products using picrate paper kits. J.S. Clinical cases of small ruminants in Zaria, Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 30: 111-116. Fox D.G., Fenderson C.L. (1978): Influence of NPN treatment, oven temperature and drying time on error in determining true corn silage dry matter