Krystyna Górecka, Dorota Krzyżanowska and Urszula Kowalska
Regeneration and Evaluation of Androgenetic Plants of Head Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea Var. Capitata L.)
Plant regeneration from head cabbage embryos obtained in anther culture, the way of colchicine using for doubling number of chromosomes in haploid plants and estimation of the double haploid plants with regard to vigour, typicality of leaves and fertility were worked out. The best medium for plant regeneration from androgenetic embryos was B5 medium, enriched with sucrose 20 g.L-1 and kinetin 20 mg.L-1. On this medium, the highest number of embryos formed shoots, usually several from 1 embryo, particularly in subsequent passages. The most effective method of doubling the number of chromosomes was soaking the roots of young plants, when they had 5-6 leaves in a 0.1% hydrous solution of colchicine with 4.0% DMSO and 25 ppm GA3, for 20 hrs. The tested cultivars of head cabbage differed considerably with regard to the vigour of the plants obtained from anther culture. The highest number of plants characterized by strong vigour was observed in the cultivar Langendijker. About 90% of head cabbage plants obtained from androgenetic embryos had typical leaves and the differences between the cultivars in this aspect were insignificant. The highest number of androgenetic androfertile plants was found in the cultivar Sława z Enkhuizen.
The genotype was the factor which had an impact in the processes examined: ability to shoot proliferation, rooting, the sensitivity to colchicine treatment, vigour of produced doubled haploid plants and their fertility.
Hakan Yildirim, Ahmet Onay, Kazim Gunduz, Sezai Ercisli and Firat Ege Karaat
This study presents an efficient improvement in the in vitro propagation protocol for one cloned genotype of lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus L.) by assessing the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) concentrations, different cytokinins and amino acids and their concentrations on shoot proliferation, the effects of shoot length on rooting and the effects of compost type (sterile and non-sterile) on acclimatization. The best growth medium for multiple shoot induction was the MS medium supplemented with a combination of 1 mg l−1 BA, 100 mg l−1 tryptophan and 0.5 mg l-1 GA3, which gave a mean shoot length of 1.64 ± 0.07 cm and a mean bud number of 5.46 ± 0.16. The best results in terms of root length, rooting rate and the number of roots per shoot were obtained with 2 cm long shoots. The rooted plantlets were readily acclimatized in the sterile compost. In conclusion, the micropropagation protocol developed in this study can be used for large-scale propagation of P. lentiscus L. in reforestation programmes.
Rossen S. Sokolov, Bistra Y. Atanassova and Elena T. Iakimova
vitro propaga–tion of Acer rubrum cv. Red Sunset. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 3: 195-204.
Parris J.K., Touchell D.H., Ranney T.G., Adelberg J. 2012. Basal salt composition, cytokinins, and phe–nolic binding agents influence in vitro growth and ex vitro establishment of Magnolia ‘Ann’. HortScience 47: 1625-1629.
Phelan S., Hunter A., Douglas G.C. 2009. Effect of explants source on shootproliferation and adventitious regen–eration in 10 Buddleia. Sci. Hortic. 120: 518-524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.11.009.
Podwyszyńska M., Wojtania A
-benzyladenine and N6-isopentyl adenine in shootproliferation. Sci. Hort. 27: 335-340.
PAL, M., M. BAKSHI and R. PRAKASH (2003): Effect of coppicing height on shoot production capacity of different clones of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Indian Forester 504-508.
PANETSOS, K. P., A. ECONOMOU and A. SCALTSOYIANNES (1987): Propagation in vitro of Aspen hybrid Populus spartiatica x Populus tremula from mature trees. Agricultural Research 11: 449-459.
SCALTSOYIANNES, A., K. P. PANETSOS, A. ECONOMOU and P.TSOULPHA (1994): Micropropagation of
Erna Karalija, Sanja Ćavar Zeljković, Petr Tarkowski, Edina Muratović and Adisa Parić
: An efficient liquid culture system for tea shootproliferation. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 65, 75–80.
Savio, L. E. B., Astarita, L. V., Santarém, E. R., 2011: Secondary metabolism in micropropagated Hypericum perforatum L. grown in non – aerated liquid medium. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 108, 465–472.
Sood, H., Chauhan, R. S., 2010: Biosynthesis and accumulation of medicinal compound, picroside-I, in cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 100, 113–117.
Sawyer, H., Hsiao, K. C
Mafatlal M. Kher, Deepak Soner, Neha Srivastava, Murugan Nataraj and Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. is an important medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family, particularly its roots, which are used for various therapeutic purposes in a pulverized form. The objective of this study was to develop a standard protocol for axillary shoot proliferation and rooting of C. phlomidis for its propagation and conservation. Nodal explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium that was supplemented with one of six cytokinins: 6-benzyladenine, kinetin, thidiazuron, N6-(2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), trans-zeatin (Zea) and meta-topolin. Callus induction, which was prolific at all concentrations, formed at the base of nodal explants and hindered shoot multiplication and elongation. To avoid or reduce callus formation with the objective of increasing shoot formation, the same six cytokinins were combined with 4 μM 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid (TIBA) alone or in combination with 270 μM adenine sulphate (AdS). Nodal explants that were cultured on the medium supplemented with 9.12 μM Zea, 4 μM TIBA and 270 μM AdS produced significantly more and longer shoots than on medium without TIBA and AdS. Half-strength MS medium supplemented with 8.05 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid was the best medium for root formation. Most (75%) in vitro rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized under natural conditions.
The present study reports an efficient in vitro propagation system for Turnera ulmifolia using nodal segments as explants. Turnera ulmifolia (Passifloraceae) is an important garden plant with multipotent medicinal values. Effective shoot proliferation was achieved on agar gelled MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962). The maximum number of shoots (8.3 ± 0.57) per initial explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 8.88 mM of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.54 mM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The highest number of shoots (59.5 ± 2.10) proliferated on semi-solid MS medium (with agar) augmented with 2.22 mM of BAP and 2.32 mM of kinetin (Kin) along with 0.54 mM of NAA. Longer (4-5 cm) and healthy shoots were rooted (12.0 ± 0.10 roots per shoot) on half-strength MS medium fortified with 9.84 mM of indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). The in vitro regenerated plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse and transferred to the field. Significant developmental changes were observed in the foliar micromorphology of in vitro raised plantlets when these were transferred to the field. The stomatal index was gradually reduced (26.72 to 21.25) in the leaves from in vitro to field environments. But, vein-islets and veinlet terminations (13.4 and 7.6) were increased (39.7 and 18.4) respectively from in vitro to in vivo grown plants. Simple, unicellular, less frequent and underdeveloped trichomes were observed with the leaves of in vitro plants but fully developed trichomes recorded in the field transferred plants. The study could help in understanding the response and adaptation of tissue culture raised plantlets towards changed environmental conditions.
Wojciech Litwińczuk, Ewa Okołotkiewicz and Iwona Matyaszek
. Micropropagation of strawberry via axillary shootproliferation. [In:] Methods in Molecular Biology. Plant Cell Culture Protocols, R.D. Hall (ed.). Humana Press Inc., Totowa NJ 111: 103-114.
BOXUS PH., JEMMALI A., TERZI J.M., AREZKI O., 2000. Drift in genetic stability in micropropagation: the case of strawberry. Acta Hort. 530: 155-161.
DIJKSTRA J., 1990. In vitro vermeerderen niet zonder risico. Groenten en Fruit 46(2): 58-59.
FOUAD M., SWARTZ H.J., BUTA J.G., 1991. The role of abscisic acid and plant growth regulators in
M urashige T., S koog F., 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497.
M urchie E.H., L awson T., 2013. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis: a guide to good practice and understanding some new applications. J. Exp. Bot. 64, 3983-3998.
P ahnekolayi M.D., T ehranifar A., S amiei L., S hoor M., 2014. Micropropagation of Rosa canina through axillary shootproliferation. J. Ornam. Plants 1, 45-51.
P ati P.K., R ath S.P., S harma M., S ood A., A huja P.S., 2006. In vitro
culture. Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497.
Nadgauda R.S., John C.K., Parasharami V.A., Joshi M.S., Mascarenhas A.F., 1997. A comparison of in vitro with in vivo flowering in bamboo: Bambusa arundinacea . Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 48: 181-188.
Ramanayake S.M.S.D., Wanniarachchi W.A.V.R., Tennakoon T.M.A., 2001. Axillary shootproliferation and in vitro flowering in an adult giant bamboo, Dendrocalamus giganteus Wall. ex Munro. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. - Plant 37: 667-671.
Rout G.R., Das