The paper considers the problem of ship autopilot design based on Bech’s model of the vessel. Since the model is highly nonlinear and some of the state vector coordinates are unavailable, the control system synthesis is performed by means of an output feedback linearization method combined with a nonlinear observer. The asymptotic stability of the overall system has been proven, including the asymptotic stability of the system internal dynamics. The performed simulations of the ship course-changing process have confirmed a high performance of the proposed controller. It has been emphasized that for its practical usability the system robustification is necessary.
The main goal here is to design a proper and efficient controller for a ship autopilot based on the sliding mode control method. A hydrodynamic numerical model of CyberShip II including wave effects is applied to simulate the ship autopilot system by using time domain analysis. To compare the results similar research was conducted with the PD controller, which was adapted to the autopilot system. The differences in simulation results between two controllers are analyzed by a cost function composed of a heading angle error and rudder deflection either in calm water or in waves. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the method in the presence of nonlinearities and disturbances, and high performance of the proposed controller.
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Tomera, M. (2015). A multivariable low speed controller for a shipautopilot with experimental results, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics (MMAR), Międzyzdroje, Poland , pp. 17-22, DOI: 10.1109/MMAR.2015.7283699.
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In the paper the problem of ship autopilot design based on feedback linearization method combined with the robust control approach, is considered. At first the nonlinear ship model (of Norrbin type) is linearized with the use of the simple system nonlinearity cancellation. Next, bearing in mind that exact values of the model parameters are not known, the ensuing inaccuracies are taken as disturbances acting on the system. Thereby is obtained a linear system with an extra term representing the uncertainty which can be treated by using robust, H∞ optimal control techniques. The performed simulations of ship course-changing process confirmed a high performance of the proposed controller despite the assumed significant errors of its parameters.
The paper addresses an important issue in surface vessel motion control practice that the ship dynamics and sailing performance can be affected by speed loss. The vessel speed is significantly decreased by the added resistance generated by waves. An adaptive sliding mode course keeping control design is proposed which takes into account uncertain ship dynamics caused by forward speed variations, while avoiding performance compromises under changing operating and environmental conditions. The sliding mode control provides robust performance for time-varying wave disturbances and time-varying changes in ship parameters and actuator dynamics. After combining the unknown but bounded system uncertainties, the design of the adaptation law is obtained which is based on the Lyapunov’s direct method. Simulations on a ship with two rudders illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution.
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Tomera, M. (2010). Nonlinear controller design of a shipautopilot, International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science 20(2): 271-280, 10.2478/v10006-010-0020-8.
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