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Holý, M. (1978). Erosion protection (in Czech). Praha: STNL. Horákova, P. (2009). Elaboration of a study of protective forest belt (in Czech). Lednice: MZLU. Kenney, W.A. (1986). Studies on the design and management of shelterbelts and windbreaks in Southem Ontario. M.Sc., Thesis. Lampartová, I. (2011). Evaluation of influence of revitalization measures in the agricultural landscape on the microclimate (in Czech). Lednice: MZLU. Litschmann, T. & Rožnovsky J. (2005). Optical porosity of windbreak and its influence on the character of the flow (in Czech). In J

References [1] Szajdak LW, Gaca W. Nitrate reductase activity in soil under shelterbelt and an adjoining cultivated field. Chem Ecol. 2010;26:123-134. DOI: 10.1080/02757540.2010.501028. [2] Ryszkowski L, Kędziora A. Modification of water flows and nitrogen fluxes by shelterbelts. Ecol Eng. 2007;29:388-400. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.09.023. [3] Recommendation No. R(94)6 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States for Sustainable Development and use of the Countryside with the Particular Focus on the Safeguarding of Wildlife and Landscapes (1994). Council of

): Habitatansprüche des Neuntöters ( Lanius collurio ) und Massnahmen für seinen Schutz. - Beihefte zu den Veröffentlichungen für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege in Baden-Württemberg 48: 25-53. Johnson, R. J. & Beck, M. M. (1988): Influences of shelterbelts on wildlife management and biology. - Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 22/23: 301-335. Kujawa, K. (1992): [Role of manorial parks for preservation of avifauna richness in agricultural landscape]. pp. 137-150 In: Bałazy, S., Ryszkowski, L. (eds.): [Primary production, animal resources and leaching of organic matter in an

Abstract Patterns in bee assemblages consisting of 52 core (most abundant) species in farmland in the Wielkopolska region of W Poland were analysed. The entomological material was assessed during earlier research in 1978-1993 from 18 plots in three habitat types: shelterbelts, roadsides and forest patches. At the scale of the refuge habitat size analysed here, an increase in area only slightly enhanced bee species richness. The bee assemblage structures of roadsides and forest patches differ significantly, but their indicator species do not form any well-defined ecological groups. In non-linear forest patches, the bee community structure was more homogeneous than on roadsides. These two habitat types differed significantly in their species composition. Nine significant indicator species were found, but they did not share any ecological characteristics. Three factors were found to affect significantly the responses of individual bee species in the agricultural landscape: the degree of isolation of the refuge habitat, the edge ratio, and roadsides as a refuge habitat type. A large part of the regional diversity is due to the heterogeneity of habitats within the landscape. Habitat area has little influence on the diversity of wild bees, at least within the size range analysed here. We concluded from this study that, regardless of the habitat type, the density of bees from the summer phenological period is affected by the number of food plant species. Point forest patches are habitats where summer species from the genus Andrena and the cleptoparasitic genera Nomada and Sphecodes achieve their highest abundances. Roadsides negatively affected abundances of wild bees and there were no characteristic species for this type of habitat. We hypothesised that this might be related to the specific ecological part played by this type of habitat.

.E. Koch, J., Innesand, P.M. 2012. Emerging issues in forest science. Folia ForestaliaPolonica , Series A – Forestry , 2011, 53 (1), 52–63. Calder, I.R. 2007. Forests and water – ensuring forest benefits outweigh water costs. Forest Ecology and Management , 251, 110–120. Dzybov, D.T., Chashchin, Y.A. 1984. Honey plant shelterbelts (in Russian). Beekeeping, 1, 15. Gitarsky, M., Zamolodchikov, D., Korovin, G. 2006. Emission and absorption of greenhouse gases in the forests of Russia in connection with the performance of obligations under the UN climate conference (in


Soil erosion by water is an important economical issue strongly deteriorating environment and requiring remedial actions. The study was designed to evaluate antierosion effect of changes in the layout of plots from along to across slope as an effect of land consolidation. Moreover, rightness of leaving newly set out boundaries of plots without any protection (i.e. sodding) was evaluated. For this purpose simulations of use of additional anti-erosive measures were done. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used. Studies have shown that in addition to the design of transverse layout of parcels during consolidation, further antierosion measures may be necessary to reduce soil loss and sediment yield. In order to minimize soil losses outside the slope, boundaries between the newly designed fields should be sodded already in the post consolidation management. Limitation the amount of erosion over the entire slope requires use of additional protection measures in the upper part of slopes e.g. shelterbelts and antierosion crop rotations. WEPP model can be recommended for Provincial Bureaus of Surveying as a tool to support the development of assumptions for consolidation projects of lands threatened by erosion.

-737. Burke S., 1998: Windbreak characteristics. In Windbreaks. Inkata Press, Port Mel­bourne, Victoria, Australia, p. 5. Caborn J. M., 1957: Shelterbelts and microclimate. Edinburgh University, Bulletin, 29, Forestry commission, 136 p. Cleugh H., 1998: Effects of windbreaks on airflow, microclimates and crop yields. Agro­forestry systems, 41, 55-84. Cleugh H., 2003: Trees for shelter: a guide to using windbreaks on Australian farms. Joint venture agroforestry program, rural industries research and development corpora­tion. Barton, A.C.T.: Rural Industries Research and

in roadside verges planted with Common Oak (Quercus robur L.) in Drenthe, the Netherlands. Mycorrhiza, 4: 147-159. Kałucka, I. 2009. Macrofungi in the secondary succession on the abandoned farmland near the Białowieża old-growth forest. Monogr. Bot., 99: 1-155. Krysiak, S. 2011. Odłogi w krajobrazach Polski środkowej - aspekty przestrzenne, typologiczne i ekologiczne. Problemy Ekologii Krajobrazu, 31: 89-96. Kujawa, A & Kujawa, K. 2008. Effect of young midfield shelterbelts development on species richness of macrofungi communities and their functional structure

avifauna of planted forests and shelterbelts of Melitopol District. Scientific notes of Melitopol State Pedagogical Institute, 2, 3-17 [In Ukrainian]. Orlov, P. P. 1959. Changes in the avifauna of the Lower Dnieper in the area of construction of the Kakhovka hydroelectric construction. Proceedings of scientific and research institute of biology and biological faculty of Kharkov State University, 27, 101-114 [In Russian]. Peklo, A. M. 2002. Catalogue of collections of the Zoological Museum, NSNHM, NAS of Ukraine. Birds, 3. Zoological Museum NSNHM NAS of Ukraine, Kiev, 1

References Budnychenko A. S. The birds of artificial steppe plantations and their food. Part 2. - Voronezh: Tsentr.-Chernozem. kn. izd-vo, 1968. - 261 p. - Russian: Будниченко А. С. Птицы искусственных насаждений степного ландшафта и их питание. Bukachenko L. I., Naglov V. A., Shevchenko V. L. Birds of shelterbelts and interbelt fields in the area of the South-Ukrainian Channel // Final stud. sci. conference (Kharkov State University, 5-10 April 1952): Abstracts. - Kharkov, 1952. - P. 147-148. - Russian: Букаченко Л. И., Наглов В. А., Шевчен ко В. Л. Птицы