Boyan A. Stoykov, Nikolay H. Kolev, Rumen P. Kotsev, Fahd Al-Shargabi, Pencho P. Genov, Aleksandar Vanov, Jitian A. Atanasov, Manish Sachdeva, Pencho T. Tonchev and Maria I. Koleva
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Katarzyna Jusiak, Żaneta Brudkowska, Maria Gołębiowska, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Beata Gołębiowska, Michał Próchnicki, Agnieszka Próchnicka and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
Introduction: Until recently, oxytocin was mainly associated with the pathophysiology of childbirth and sexual functions, but lately this hormone has become the object of interest to psychiatry and psychology due to the significant influence of oxytocin on human behavior in the field of social and emotional functioning. Current scientific research focuses on the participation of oxytocin in the pathogenesis and therapy of mental disorders.
Aim: The aim of the paper is to present, on the basis of available literature, the significance of oxytocin for various psychological functions, with particular emphasis on the influence of oxytocin on the course and clinical picture of schizophrenia.
Method: Available articles from the Medline / PubMed database were analyzed, which were searched using keywords: oxytocin, schizophrenia, therapeutic use of oxytocin, social cognition, positive symptoms, negative symptoms and time descriptors: 2013-2017. There are included articles published in Polish and English.
Results:The research results carried out so far suggest that oxytocin plays a significant role in modulating complex socio-emotional behaviors in schizophrenic patients. The existing research results also indicate a relationship between the dysregulation of the oxytocinergic system and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Many of the studies prove that there is a relationship between the level of oxytocin in the patients' blood plasma and the severity of the disease symptoms. Recent genetic studies indicate a possible relationship between polymorphism of oxytocin genesand polymorphism of oxytocin receptor genes and the risk of developing schizophrenia.
Conclusions: Contemporary research on the therapeutic potential of oxytocin and its influence on the functioning of schizophrenia patients seem to be very promising and may contribute to increasing the effectiveness of treatment of schizophrenia and possibly other mental disorders, which in turn will improve the quality of life of patients in cognitive, social and emotional functioning.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrine disease among women with childbearing potential, the best-known cause of hirsutism, with a hypothesized prevalence of 8-22%. The first part of the paper discusses the conceptional evolution of the syndrome, from its description in 1935 by Stein and Leventhal till today. It describes the changes in the criteria systems, emphasizing that the Rotterdam criteria, proposed in 2003 by the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine, are still valid today. This system basically differs from earlier (1990) NIH-criteria in one aspect: it introduced two newer phenotypes, one without hyperandrogenism and the other with ovulatory cycles, so it distinguishes 4 phenotypes. The etiology and pathogenesis of PCOS is heterogeneous, multifactorial, poorly understood. We present the 3 leading hypotheses (1 - hypothalamo-hypophyseal disturbances, 2 – primary enzyme disorders in ovarian, or ovarian/adrenal steroidogenesis, resulting primarily in hyperactivity of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 3 – insulin resistance-hyperinsulinism and other metabolic dysfunctions). We emphasize the role of genetically determined hyperandrogenism, that of insulin resistance-hyperinsulinism and the importance of reinforcing each other. Subsequently, the aggravating aspects of the frequently associated metabolic syndrome are discussed, and then the effects of the mentioned pathological processes on the endocrine and other organ structures participating in the regulation of sexual functions. We stress the hypothetical role of perinatal and pubertal androgen exposition in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The mechanisms of anovulation and those of the endometrial lesions are discussed, too. The clinical manifestations, the paraclinical and laboratory examinations, the positive and differential diagnosis and the complications are also presented. We intend to deal with the therapeutic aspects of PCOS in an upcoming paper.
Grażyna Stadnicka, Anna B. Pilewska-Kozak, Celina Łepecka-Klusek, Klaudia Pałucka and Karolina Kostrzewska
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