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Mechanisms of sex determination in plants are popular research topic. Research studies are initiated to describe sex determination mechanisms and develop molecular methods for sex differentiation in plant species where sexual dimorphism is weakly expressed or absent at the early stages of development. This study presents different mechanisms of sex determination in plants, identifies unexplored areas and discusses problems which limit our knowledge of the subject.
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Morphology of second instar nymphs of Kermes quercus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Kermesidae)
The second instar male and female of Kermes quercus Linnaeus are redescribed and illustrated. Sexual dimorphism is demonstrated. The second instar male is distinguished by 7-segmented antennae, well-developed legs, thin and long body setae, quinquelocular pores on both surfaces, bilocular pores only on the venter near the sub- and marginal setae, and by the lack of simple pores. The second instar female has shortened antennae, annular segments reduced to 5-6, very much reduced legs, short and stout body setae, quinquelocular pores only on the venter, bilocular pores on both surfaces, but those on the dorsum distributed throughout the derm, while those on the venter are located as in the male, and by having a few simple pores in the posterior and marginal areas of the dorsum. The presence of tubular ducts is the most noticeable morphological feature of second instar nymphs distinguishing them from first instar nymphs.
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