I Rueda, I Banegas, I Prieto, R Wangensteen, AB Segarra, AB Villarejo, M De Gasparo, JD Luna, F Vives, M Ruiz-Bailen and M Ramirez-Sanchez
classifications and health disorders. Laterality 10, 429–440, 2005.
Clark CE. Difference in blood pressure measurements between arms: methodological and clinical implications. Curr Pharm Des 21, 737–743, 2015.
Dubey RK, Oparil S, Imthurn B, Jackson EK. Sexhormones and hypertension. Cardiovasc Res 53, 688–708, 2002.
Dunne FP, Barry DG, Ferriss JB, Grealy G, Murphy D. Changes in blood pressure during the normal menstrual cycle. ClinSci (Lond) 81, 515–518, 1991.
Dunson DB, Baird DD, Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR. Day-specific probabilities of clinical pregnancy
Maylor EA, Reimers S, Choi J, Collaer ML, Peters M, Silverman I. Gender and sexual orientation differences in cognition across adulthood: age is kinder to women than to men regardless of sexual orientation. Arch Sex Behav 2007;36:235-49.
Kimura D. Sex, sexual orientation and sexhormones influence human cognitive function. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1996;6:259-63.
Sherwin BB. Estrogen and cognitive functioning in women. Endocr Rev 2003
Anthony C. Hackney, Ashley L. Kallman and Eser Ağgön
AC (ed.), SexHormones, Exercise and Women . Springer International Publishing, pp. 1-18.
4. Gabay C. (2006) Interleukin-6 and chronic inflammation. Arthritis Res. Ther ., 8(Suppl 2): S3.
5. Kenny W.L., Wilmore J.H., Costill D.L. (2017) Physiology of Sport and Exercise . 6 th Edition. Human Kinetics Publishing.
6. Linton M., Gallo P.S. (1975) The Practical Statistician: Simplified Handbook of Statistics . Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., pp. 115-120, 311-315.
7. Tiidus P.M. (2017) Estrogen and menopause: Muscle damage, repair and function in
Milan B. Lakočević, Mirjana M. Platiša, Zorica R. Šumarac, Nada D. Suvajdžić, Lana Đ. Mačukanović and Milan S. Petakov
under the influence of sexhormones.
Materials and Methods
In this cross-sectional study, 20 type 1 GD patients with no clinical neurological manifestations (10 women and 10 men) aged 19 to 61 years were compared with healthy controls matched for gender and age. Among the patients, three were treatmentnaïve, fourteen had received enzyme replacement therapy and three substrate-reductive therapy for more than 5 years.
Compliance with ethical standards
Approval for the study was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty, University
Tae Hee Kim, Mi Ran Kim, Yongsik Jung and Young-Sil An
18 F-FDG PET, which utilizes a radiolabeled analogue of glucose, is widely used clinically in patients with cancer to evaluate staging and the therapeutic response. 1 However, 18 F-FDG uptake may be high not only in malignant lesions but also in normal tissues. 2 , 3 , 4 High uptake of 18 F-FDG in the pelvic region of women, particularly by the ovaries, can be confusing for nuclear-medicine physicians interpreting PET images.
The ovary is a major reproductive organ characterized by cyclic changes in sexhormones, which are believed to
Whole-grain rye intake has been suggested to have anti-cancer effect, including changes in serum hormones and reduced prostate specific antigen (PSA) in animals and humans. In this study, we investigated the effect of high intake of whole-grain rye bread on prostate cancer progression as assessed by PSA concentration in men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Fifteen men with prostate cancer who did not receive prior therapy were randomised and given a daily supplement of 250 g refined wheat bread for two weeks and, afterwards, 250 g whole-grain rye bread for six weeks. Blood samples were taken from fasting men at baseline and after two and six weeks to measure the PSA and sex hormones. The dietary intake was: energy intake 3452 kcal; protein intake 166 g, carbohydrate intake 334 g, fat 149 g, saturated fat intake 52 g, and fibre intake 40 g. Plasma total PSA, free PSE, testosterone concentrations and free androgen index tended to be higher after refined white bread treatment and lower after whole-grain rye treatment. However, none of the differences were statistically significant. There were no significant changes in sex hormone binding globulin, luteinising hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone. In this intervention trial, whole-grain rye consumption did not result in significant changes in PSA and sex hormones, which may be related to high fat intake. Further prospective trials are indicated to evaluate the potential of whole-grain rye bread, taking into account other factors.
between gender and chronic kidney disease (CKD) was also addressed; CKD is more severe in men, while the prevalence is higher in women. Several factors may cause gender to influence the risk of CKD. Pounds et al. ( 5 ) assumed that since muscle mass and creatinine generation levels are higher in men than women, men have higher levels of kidney function, which may be linked to the severity of the disease in men. Another factor is nitric oxide (NO) level, which is influenced by sexhormones and has a complex role in renal injury ( 6 ). Estrogen plays a significant role in
The pattern of facial preferences in boys at early adolescence
Despite numerous studies on perception of facial attractiveness in adults, preferences in adolescents remain poorly characterized. The aim of present study was to explore facial preferences in boys at early adolescence (11-13 years old) and compare them with preferences of men. All males evaluated the same 30 female faces, which were also assessed by independent judges for several perceived features. Regardless of age, boys assessed attractiveness much the same as men, and the strengths of their preferences for specific facial features were similar to those of men. The pubertal maturity (calculated on the basis of the presence of pubic hair at two sessions spaced ten months apart) correlated positively with strength of preference for several facial features (specifically: maturity, sexiness, marital appearance and friendly appearance). This remained true even after controlling for age and psychosexual development, suggesting that sex hormones are involved in the development of facial preferences in pubescent boys.
Prawit Onpanna, Paiboon Daosodsai, Kawin Leelawat and Supatra Porasuphatana
Cross-sexhormones (CSH) are defined as exogenous steroid sexhormones (namely androgens for female-to-male transsexual men and estrogens for male-to-female (MtF)) transsexual women administered for the purpose of synchronizing a person’s secondary sexual characteristics with their gender identity [ 1 , 2 ]. Previous studies have shown positive health benefits of exogenous female hormones for women’s health [ 3 , 4 ]. When hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was first introduced for clinical use, it was considered “the golden period” of hormone utilization for
Bojana Popovic, Dejana Popovic, Djuro Macut, Ivana Bozic Antic, Tatjana Isailovic, Sanja Ognjanovic, Tamara Bogavac, Valentina Elezovic Kovacevic, Dusan Ilic, Mirjana Petrovic and Svetozar Damjanovic
List of abbreviations
CPET, cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill (CPET)
VO 2 , oxygen consumption
VO2max, maximal oxygen consumption
S, start of the test
MAX, point of maximal effort
R, the 3rd minute of recovery
RIA, radioimmuno assay
IRMA, immunoradiometric assay
SHBG, sexhormone binding globulin
FAI, free-androgen index
HPA axis, hipothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.
1. Mastorakos G, Pavlatou M, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Chrousos GP. Exercise and the Stress System. Hormones (Athens