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References Addison, B. A., Kitaysky, A. S. & Hipfner, J. M. 2008. Sex allocation in a monomorphic seabird with a single-egg clutch: test of the environment, mate quality, and female condition hypotheses. - Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63: 135-141. Bradbury, R. B. & Blakey, J. K. 1998. Diet, maternal condition, and offspring sex ratio in the Zebra finch, Poephila guttata . - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265: 895-899. Burley, N. 1981. Sex ratio manipulation and selection for attractiveness. - Science 211: 721-722. Burley, N. 1986. Sex


For over a decade, our research group has studied the biology of the native bumblebee, Bombus atratus, to investigate the feasibility of using it to pollinate crops such as tomato, strawberry, blackberry and peppers. Traditionally, captive breeding has depended on the use of captured wild queens to initiate the colonies. The goal of the current work is to investigate conditions required to produce new queens and drones in captivity. In this study, 31 colonies were evaluated under either greenhouse or open field conditions over a 15 month period. A total of 1492 drones (D) and 737 gynes (G, i.e., virgin queens) were produced by all colonies, with 16 colonies producing both drones and gynes (D&G), 11 producing only drones (D) and 4 producing neither. Some of the D&G colonies had more than one sexual phase, but no colonies produced exclusively gynes. More drones and fewer gynes were produced per colony under greenhouse conditions with the highest number of drones produced by D&G colonies. The numbers of immature stages per cell declined in colonies as increasingly more resources were allocated to the production of gynes and the maintenance of increased nest temperature.

H., Sheldon B. C. 1997. New tools for sex identification and the study of sex allocation in birds. Trends Ecol. Evol. (Amst.). 12: 255-259. Ewen G. E., Cassey P., Mřller A. P. 2004. Facultative primary sex ratio variation: a lack of evidence in birds? Proc. Biol. Sci. 171: 1277-1283. Fridolfsson A. K., Ellegren H. 1999. A simple and universal method for molecular sexing of nonratite birds. J. Avian Biol. 30: 116-121. Griffiths R., Double M., Orr K., Dawson R. 1998. A DNA test to sex most birds. Mol. Ecol. 7: 1071-1075. Griffiths R., Korn R. 1997. A CHD1 gene is

Wisconsin ( Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) // Annals of the Entomological Society of America. - 1965. - 58, N 2. - P. 137-142. Mei, M., Pezzi, G., De Togni, R., Devincenzo, U. Th e oriental mud-dauber wasp Chalybion bengalense (Dahlbom) introduced in Italy (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) // Ampulex. - 2012. - 5. - P. 37-41. O’Neill, K. M., O’Neill, R. P. Sex allocation, nests, and prey in the grass-carrying wasp Isodontia mexicana (Saussure) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) // Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. - 2003. - 76, N 3. - P. 447-454. Protsenko, Yu. V., Fateryga, A. V

, A. S., Kuznetsov, V. A. 2016 b. Breeding success of the Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) and rodent population dynamics. Biology Bulletin, 43(8), 851-861. Brommer, J. E., Karell, P., Pihlaja, T., Painter, J. N., Primmer, C. R., Pietiainen, H. 2003. Ural owl sex allocation and parental investment under poor food conditions. Oecologia, 137, 140-147. Cramp, S. 1985. Th e birds of the western Palearctic: Handbook of the Birds of the Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. Vol. 4. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K. Dravecky, M., Obuch, J. 2009. Contribution to the

in Polygonatum odoratum (Liliaceae). – Plant Biology, 3: 637–641. G uitián J., M edrano M., O ti J.E., 2004: Variation in floral sex allocation in Polygonatum odoratum (Liliaceae). – Annals of Botany, 94(3): 433–40. G ustafsson L., 1994: A comparison of biological characteristics and distribution between Swedish threatened and not-threatened forest vascular plants. – Ecography, 17: 39–49. H ermy M., H onnay O., F irbank L., G rashof -B okdam C., L awesson J.E., 1999: An ecological comparison between ancient and other forest plant species of Europe, and

. (2010) Conditional sex allocation in the Red Mason bee, Osmia bicornis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64: 337-347. DOI 10.1007/s00265-009-0850-2 Steffan-Dewenter I. (2003) Importance of habitat area and landscape context for species richness of bees and wasps in fragmented orchard meadows. Conservation Biology 17: 1036-1044. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.01575.x Strohm E., Daniels H., Warmers C., Stoll C. (2002) Nest provisioning and a possible cost of reproduction in the megachilid bee Osmia bicornis studied by a new observation method. Ethology Ecology

References Alaux C., Ducloz F., Crauser D., Le Conte Y. (2010) Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence. Biology Letters 6: 562-565. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2009.0986 Ashman T. L., Shoen D. J. (1994) How long should a flower live? Nature 371: 788-790. Cao G. X., Kudo G., Ida T. Y. (2007) Floral sex allocation in a hermaphrodite herb with 1-day flowers, Hosta rectifolia (Liliaceae). Plant Species Biology 22: 191-196. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-1984.2007.00191.x Chmiel H. (2010) Uprawa roślin ozdobnych. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne. Warszawa. 900 pp. Chung M. G

References Aars, J. & Ims R.A. (2002). Intrinsic and climatic determinants of population demography: the winter dynamics of tundra voles. Ecology , 83, 3449−3456. DOI: 10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[3449:IACDOP]2.0.CO;2. Begon, M., Townsend, C.R. & Harper J.L. (2006). Ecology, individuals, populations and communities . Boston: Black-well. Brommer, J.E., Karell, P., Pihlaja, T., Painter, J.N., Primmer, C.R. & Pietiäinen H. (2003). Ural owl sex allocation and parental investment under poor food conditions., Oecologia , 137,140−147. DOI: 10.1007/s00442

, 8-13. Bosch, J., & Kemp, W.P. (2004). Effect of pre-wintering and wintering temperature regimes on weight loss, survival, and emergence time in the mason bee Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Apidologie, 35, 469-479. Bosch, J., & Vicens, N. (2005). Sex allocation in the solitary bee Osmia cornuta: do females behave in agreement with Fisher’s theory? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiolgy, 59, 124-132. Cane, J. H., Griswold, T., & Parker, F. D. (2007). Substrates and materials used for nesting by North American Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae