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occupational therapists’ changes in service provision, in professional viewpoints and attitudes, and in job satisfaction through EBP Service Centre consultation. The second aim was to receive feedback on the EBP Service Centre for its further development. Method For EBP Service Centre evaluation, the qualitative approach of content analysis by Gläser and Laudel (2010) was chosen. Focus group interviews with the practitioners who participated in the pilot project were conducted to receive detailed and in-depth information. Participants were recruited via the Vienna Hospital


Despite the absence of the long-term tradition of inter-municipal cooperation in Lithuania, the country represents a compelling case of cooperative solutions which are mostly focused on public services delivery design imposed by the central government. The article provides theoretical and empirical insights on the inter-municipal cooperative capacities and their scope in the case of Lithuania, with reference to the size of the municipality. The results reveal that the large size municipalities are more likely to benefit from collaborative arrangements in comparison to small size municipalities which have less institutional ability for collaboration. In this respect, the external influences imposed by the central authorities’ agenda on implementing economy of scale principles and strong municipal service delivery regulations is extremely important for understanding the municipal efforts for collaboration.

Vol. 33 Poznań 2015 Elżbieta A d a m c z y k (Jagiellonian University in Kraków) the role of licenSeS in public utility ServiceS proviSion – 19th century experienceS doi:10.1515/sho-2015-0001 4 Elżbieta Adamczyk freedom in applying the law. usually, everything that “directly concerned the interest of the commune and lay within its borders, that can be done and solved by the commune itself” was included in the own tasks of the commune.2 legal acts included examples of cases for which the commune was responsible, but the list was open-ended, complemented as


Die Sicherung der hausärztlichen Versorgung in ländlichen Räumen wird in Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis viel diskutiert. Dabei sind die aktuellen Standortfaktoren für die Niederlassung von Hausärzten nur unzureichend bekannt, da sich bisherige Studien auf berufliche Faktoren beschränken oder die Standortvorstellungen von Nachwuchsmedizinern und nicht die tatsächlichen Standortentscheidungen für die Niederlassung untersuchen. Die Forschungsfrage dieses Beitrags lautet: Welche beruflichen und privaten Standortfaktoren beeinflussen Hausärzte bei ihren Niederlassungsentscheidungen in ländlichen Räumen? Dazu werden zunächst zwei regionale Fallstudien mit insgesamt 21 leitfadengestützten Interviews mit Experten und neu niedergelassenen Medizinern durchgeführt, um ausschlaggebende Standortfaktoren herauszuarbeiten. Darauf aufbauend werden die Bedeutung ausgewählter Standortfaktoren für die regional ungleichen Hausarztdichten und die Entwicklungen der Hausarztzahlen mithilfe multipler Regressionen bundesweit quantifiziert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass insbesondere berufliche Aspekte, wie ökonomische Planbarkeit, enger Patientenkontakt, organisatorische Freiheiten, sowie biographische Bezüge in die Regionen entscheidende Kriterien für die Standortwahl sind. Darüber hinaus hat die Familienfreundlichkeit des alltäglichen Umfelds großes Gewicht. Andere weiche Standortfaktoren, wie die Nähe zu einem hochwertigen Kultur- und Freizeitangebot, erweisen sich hingegen als eher unbedeutend. Schließlich besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen der stationären und der ambulanten Versorgung. So waren viele Hausärzte bereits in einem Krankenhaus in der Region tätig und ließen sich dann aufgrund der besseren Arbeitsbedingungen und Vereinbarkeit mit der Familie hausärztlich nieder. Die Ergebnisse weisen auf einen Wandel der Standortfaktoren hin, wodurch sich weiterer Forschungsbedarf und konkrete Handlungsempfehlungen ergeben.


Landscape represents appropriate spatial dimension for a study of ecosystems, especially due to ability to translate scientific knowledge into proper guidance for land use practice and enhancing the inclusion of local stakeholders in decision-making procedures. We tested social preferences method to reach initial and raw overview of the ecosystem services (ES) distribution and their values in the study areas. Perception of experts and local residents about capacities of relevant CORINE land cover (CLC) types to provide various ES was linked with Geographic Information System databases. We quantified the results on the basis of the mean values for each CLC type and the ES groups and these were interpreted also in spatial context. The expectation about perceptible capacities of forest to provide goods and services was fulfilled by responses of the experts, as was the expected difficulty to assess capacities of transitional woodland shrub or complex cultivation patterns. However, additional land cover types in question are meadows and pastures or discon-tinuous urban fabric. Mostly middle ranking values prevail in responses of local residents and uncertainty in the background is much greater comparing to the experts. On the other hand, rural people may better recognise diversified fow of services due to their everyday close connection to more ES. Large variation in the scores of some valued CLC classes in responses of the local residents and also experts seems resulting from lack of knowledge in the background and differences in viewpoint and appreciation. We understand the gaps in evaluating ES by the experts and resident population as good experience and key challenge for the further steps and fine-tuning of the research methods.

customers, external cooperation flexibility with suppliers and internal cooperation flexibility), innovation flexibility (consisting of innovation flexibility related to the product and innovation flexibility related to accompanying services), innovation performance and business performance. The final part of the questionnaire surveyed general information about the respondents, including a query on smart service provision. Flexibility items were based on Tomášková (2005) , Liao & Barnes (2015) , Obeidat et al. (2016) ; innovation performance items — Liao & Barnes

Low Countries: Same problems, different solutions’ Local Government Studies 36 6 803 822 Denters, B, Goldsmith, M, Ladner, A, Mouritzen, PE, Rose, L 2014, Size and Local Democracy , Edward Elgar. Denters B Goldsmith M Ladner A Mouritzen PE Rose L 2014 Size and Local Democracy Edward Elgar Dollery, B, Byrnes, J, Crase, L 2008, ‘Australian local government amalgamation: A conceptual analysis of population size and scale economies in municipal service provision’, Australasian Journal of Regional Studies , vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 167-175. Dollery B Byrnes J Crase L 2008

-137. Marcinkeviciute, L. and Petrauskiene, R. 2007 Socialiniu paslaugu teikimo tobulinimo aktualijos kamiskose seniunijose [Relevance of Improvement of Social Services' Provision in Rural Neighbourhoods]. Viesoji Politika ir Administravimas/Public Policy and Administration. Vol. (21): 28-37. Mendelson, S. and Glenn, J. K. 2002 The Power and Limits of NGOs: A Critical Look at Building Democracy in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. New York: Columbia University Press. Ministry of Social Security and Labour of Lithuania. 2009 Social Report 2008-09. Vilnius. National Social Committee of

would have to leave the retirement home. At the same time, as the number of people interested in social service provision increases in facilities every year, this would result in an increased average waiting time and a reduced chance of getting a place. DEA Model Y: the Model Y shows output-oriented technical efficiency, within constant yields of the range (CRS) and variable yields (VRS) in the analysed retirement homes (HE1 – HE6), see Table 6 . The weight of the technical efficiency coefficient of the unit must equal to 1. The optimal coefficient rate is 1, while


Paper present impact of human resources issues as well as issues related to provision of medical services on leadership styles in hospitals in Poland. In this study a descriptive research design was used and a quantitative research was conducted, which was based on the so-called BOST methodology. Surveys were conducted among department heads of 10 public hospitals of various referral systems from the Upper-Silesian Agglomeration providing various types of medical services (which shows a large variety of research sample) operating in Poland. The research showed that both improtance of service provision as well as human resources were not as important as they should be.