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.J., McKenna J.P., Menzies F.D., McCullough S.J., O'Neill H.J., Wyatt D.E., Cardwell C.R., Coyle P.V.: Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seroprevalence in cattle. Epidemiol Infect 2010, 138, 21-27. 11. Mikołajczyk E.Z., Lewińska R., Lojewska R., Rumin W., Kruszewska D.: Serologic reaction in humans during the outbreaks of Q fever. Przegl Epidemiol 1986, 40, 342-348. 12. Muskens J., van Engelen E., van Maanen C., Bartels C., Lam T.J.G.M.: Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in Dutch dairy herds based on testing bulk tank milk and individual samples by PCR and ELISA. Vet Rec

;48;1160-1163. 9. Ramachandran R, Datta M, Subramani R, Baskaran G, Paramasivan CN, Swaminathan S. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among tuberculosis patients in Tamil Nadu. Indian J Med Res 2003;118:147-51. 10. Sharma SK, Aggarwal G, Seth P, Saha PK. Increasing HIV seropositivity among adult tuberculosis patients in Delhi. Indian J Med Res 2003;117:239-42. 11. Narain JP, Pontali E, Tripathy S. Sentinel surveillance for HIV infection in tuberculosis patients in India.Indian J Tuberc. 2002;49:17-20. 12. Rajasekaran S, Uma A, Kamakshi S, Jeyaganesh

Turkey appeared with an outbreak in 1947 ( 15 ). To our knowledge, the seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep and goats in the Turkish Marmara region including all provinces has not been reported in the literature so far. Serosurveys have shown that Q fever is endemic in humans and animals in Turkey and it is obvious that this disease constitutes an important risk to both human and animal health. With this impetus in mind, the aim of the present study is to determine the seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep and goats in all 11 provinces in the Marmara region in Turkey

D, Hausler H. The role of pregnancy intention in HIV prevention in South Africa: a proposed model for policy and practice. African J AIDs Res . 2008;7(2):159-165. doi:10.2989/AJAR.2008. Salawa FK, Danburam A, Desalu OO, Midala JK, Olokoba LB, Abdurrahman MB and Vandi K. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection amongst Pregnant Women: A practice that must continue. Eur J Sci Res . 2009;28(2):266-270. Obi SN. Pregnancy outcome in HIV seroprevalence in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Orient J Med . 2005;17(3 and 4):25-30. Imade GE, Sagay AS, Ugwu BT

International Research Conference including the 56th Brucellosis Research Conference, September 15-17, 2003 - University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. Brucella 2003 Proceedings:63. Mainar-Jame RC, Munoz PM, De Miguel MJ, Grillo MJ, Marin CM, Moriyon I, et al. Spcifity dependence between serological tests for diagnosing bovine brucellosis in Brucella-free farms showing false positive serological reactions due to Yersinia enterocolitica O:9. Can Vet J. 2005;46:913-16. Theoman ZA, Murat Y, Ersin I. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Human, Sheep and Cattle Populations in Kirikkale

L, Mendão C, Madeira de Carvalho L: Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis , Ehrlichia canis , Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal--a national serological study. Parasit Vectors 2012, 5:62. 36. Miró G, Montoya A, Roura X, Gálvez R, Sainz A: Seropositivity rates for agents of canine vector-borne diseases in Spain: a multicentre study. Parasit Vectors 2013, 6:117. 37. Berzina I, Matise I: Seroprevalence against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and occurence of antibody co

for initial anti-HCV serology screening of patients who undergo HD. Positive outcomes must be confirmed with HCV RNA testing [ 8 ]. Whereas, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommends that patients who undergo HD must be screened with molecular tests at first admission to HD units and again at transfer to another center because of the high HCV seroprevalence in HD units [ 16 ]. The nosocomial pathway plays a primary role in HCV transmission in HD units. There is also the knowledge that HCV is not transmitted from dialysis membrane directly. Two

ELISA has already been used in ruminants to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals [ 23 , 24 ]. Indirect ELISA for FMDV NSP is simple to perform and suitable for large scale serological surveillance in countries like Pakistan. The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against NSP of FMDV in buffalo and cattle in periurban dairy colonies of large ruminants in Pakistan. The information obtained from the present study would aid in understanding the extent of FMDV circulation in large ruminants under field

XJ, Okamoto H, Van der Poel WHM, et al. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: hepeviridae. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:2645–6. DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000940 5. World Health Organization. Hepatitis E vaccine: WHO position paper, May 2015 – Recommendations. Vaccine. 2016;34(3):304-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.07.056 6. Debing Y, Moradpour D, Neyts J, Gouttenoire J. Update on hepatitis E virology: Implications for clinical practice. J Hepatol. 2016;65(1):200-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.02.045 7. Fischer C, Hofmann M, Danzer M, Hofer K, Kaar J, Gabriel C. Seroprevalence and Incidence


With its epizootiological characteristics, the territory of the municipality of Belgrade city is a potentially important locality for the maintenance and spreading of a number of serovars of Leptospira interrogans. In order to evaluate the epizootiological situation as far as animal leptospirosis in the Belgrade region is concerned, from January 2012 until June 2013 the prevalence of cat leptospirosis has been evaluated. The standard microagglutination test (MAT) was used to determine animals sero positive to different serovars that belong to L. interrogans sensu lato complex. The antigens used were: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Canicola, Bratislava, Batavie, Sejroe, Pyrogenes, Australis and Autumnalis. Out of the total number of tested animals, there were 43 (26.7%) positive to one, two or three serovar(s). Out of a total of 43 positive sera 20 (46.5%) samples were positive to more than one leptospira serovar