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R eferences 1. Depuydt PO, Kress P, Salluh JIF. The ten “diseases” that are not true diseases. Intensive Care Med. 2016; 42:411-4. 2. Singer M, Deutchman CS, Seymour CW, Shankar-Hari M, et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016; 315: 801-10. 3. Gattinoni L, Ranieri VM, Pesenti I. Sepsis: needs for defining severity. Intensive Care Med. 2015. 41: 551-2. 4. Shankar-Hari M, Bertolini G, Brunkhorst FM, et al. Judging quality of current septic shock definitions and criteria. Critical Care. 2015;19:445. 5

R eferences 1. Gaieski DF, Edwards JM, Kallan MJ, Carr BG. Benchmarking the incidence and mortality of severe sepsis in the United States. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:1167-74. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31827c09f8. 2. Vincent JL, Marshall JC, Namendys-Silva SA, et al. Assessment of the worldwide burden of critical illness: the intensive care over nations (ICON) audit. Lancet Respiratory Med. 2014;2:380-6. doi: 10.1016/s2213-2600(14)70061-x. 3. Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3

REFERENCES 1. Bone RC, Sprung CL, Sibbald WJ: Definitions for sepsis and organ failure. Crit Care Med. 1992; 20:724–726 2. Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al: 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International. Sepsis Definitions Conference. Intensive Care Med 2003;29: 530–538 3. Brahm Goldstein, MD; Brett Giroir, MD; Adrienne Randolph, MD; and the Members of the International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis: International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: Definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2005;6(1):2-8 4

R eferences 1. Alexandraki I, Palacio C. Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteremia: what is more alarming? Crit Care. 2010;14:161. 2. Barkhausen T, Tschernig T, Rosenstiel P, et al. Selective blockade of interleukin-6 trans-signalling improves survival in a murine polymicrobial sepsis model. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(6):1407-13. 3. Baron RM, Baron MJ, Perrella MA. Pathobiology of sepsis: are we still asking the same questions? Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;34:129–34. 4. Georgescu AM, Szederjesi J, Voidazan S, et al. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator

Sepsis is a common critical illness in pediatrics and the leading cause of death in infants and children worldwide [ 1 ]. This disease is characterized by high prevalence rate, high mortality rate, and high treatment costs. The burden of disease by disability-adjusted life years caused by neonatal sepsis and infectious diseases accounted for 1.78% of the total disability-adjusted life years globally. The incidence of sepsis is predominant in children younger than 5 years, with the highest incidence of 0–6 days after birth, followed by 7–27 days and 28–364 days

REFERENCES 1. Singer M, Deutschman C, Seymour C, et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (sepsis-3). JAMA 2016; 315: 801-10. 2. Linde-Zwirble WT, Angus DC. Severe sepsis epidemiology: Sampling, selection, and society. Crit Care 2004; 8: 222-6. 3. Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J, et al. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Critical care medicine 2001; 29(7): 1303-1310. 4. Henriksen DP, Laursen CB, Jensen TG, et al Incidence Rate of Community

Abbreviations PCT =Procalcitonin CRP =C reactive protein ICU =Intense critical care unit ACCP =American College of Chest Physicians SCCM =Society of Critical Care Medicine HIV =Human immunodeficiency virus ROC =Receiver operating characteristic curve AUC =Aria under the ROC curve SIRS =Systemic inflammatory response syndrome References 1. Wang HE, Devereaux RS, Yealy DM, Safford MM, Howard G. National variation in United States sepsis mortality: a descriptive study. Int J Health Geogr. 2010 Feb 15;9:9. DOI: 10.1186/1476-072X-9-9 2. Mayr FB, Yende S, Angus DC

REFERENCES 1. Fleischmann C, Scherag A, Adhikari NK, et al. Assessment of Global Incidence and Mortality of Hospital-treated Sepsis. Current Estimates and Limitations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016; 193(3): 259–72. 2. Gaieski DF, Mikkelsen ME, Band RA. et al. Impact of time to antibiotics on survival in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in whom early goal-directed therapy was initiated in the emergency department. Crit Care Med 2010; 38: 1045–53. 3. Hoenigl M, Raggam RB, Wagner J, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator

References 1. Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup; Dellinger, RP; Levy, MM; Rhodes, A et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsisand septic shock: 2012. Critical Care Medicine. 2013;41:580-637. 2. Russel, JA. The current management of septic shock. Minerva Medica. 2008;99:431-58. 3. Deutschman, CS; Tracey, KJ. Sepsis: Current dogma andnewperspectives. Immunity. 2014;40:463-75. 4. Jui J. Septic Shock. In Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski JS, Ma OJ et al. Tintinalli's Emergency

Introduction Brain dysfunction is a frequent complication of sepsis even in cases of extra-cranial origin and is related to several underlying mechanisms. Encephalography (EEG) seems to be a useful tool in detecting the presence of encephalopathy in patients with sepsis. Although EEG is not a specific test, it is sensitive and can detect abnormalities even when clinical neurologic examination is normal. The aim of this study was to document the EEG abnormalities and search for correlations between EEG findings and commonly used severity and prognostic scores