Stanislav Yu. Melchakov, Dmitry S. Maltsev, Vladimir A. Volkovich, Leonid F. Yamshchikov, Dmitry G. Lisienko, Aleksandr G. Osipenko and Mikhail A. Rusakov
, H. (2009). Separationfactor of americium from cerium in molten chloride - liquid gallium reductive extraction system. Electrochemistry, 77(8), 649-651.
7. Lambertin, D., Chedhomme, S., Bourges, G., Sanchez, S., & Picard, G. S. (2005). Activity coeffi cients of plutonium and cerium in liquid gallium at 1073 K: application to a molten salt/solvent metal separation concept. J. Nucl. Mater., 341, 131-140. DOI: 10.1016/j. jnucmat.2005.01.009.
8. Novoselova, A. V., & Smolenskii, V. V. (2013). Electrochemical study of the properties of Nd
Michael Trumm, Bernd Schimmelpfennig and Andreas Geist
Although BTP (2,6-di(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine) has been proven to be a highly effective N-donor ligand for the selective An(III)/Ln(III) separation, the origin of its selectivity is still under discussion. We present in this paper quantum-chemical calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 level which highlight the role of the aquo ions in the separation process. Furthermore these data will be the reference for future force-field development to investigate the differences in An(III) complexation reactions compared to their Ln(III) counterparts.
M. Kumar, G. Elangovan, R. Tamilarasan, G. Vijayakumar, P.C. Mukeshkumar and S. Sendhilnathan
This article presents the feasibility for the removal of Aniline Blue dye (AB dye) from aqueous solution using a low cost biosorbent material Zizyphus oenoplia seeds. In this study, a batch mode experiments of the adsorption process were carried out as a function of pH, contact time, concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage and temperature. The experimental data were fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equations. The feasibility of the isotherm was evaluated with dimensionless separation factor (RL). The kinetic data of sorption process are evaluated by using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations. The mode of diffusion process was evaluated with intra-particle diffusion model. The thermodynamic parameters like change in enthalpy (ΔHº); change in entropy (ΔSº) and Gibbs free energy change (ΔGº) were calculated using Van’t Hoff plot. The biosorbent material was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and the morphology was identified with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in before and after adsorption of AB dye.
A rational definition for characterizing the capacity of a cigarette filter to selectively modify the chemical composition of mainstream smoke is presented. The definition is related to the concept of separation factor as defined in chemical engineering and applied in the description of various unit processes. A number of numerical values for a wide range of cigarette filters currently found in the world market place are presented. The relative independence of the selectivity as defined in this paper upon tobacco types is demonstrated. Using a fixed filter construction in terms of amount and type of cellulose acetate fiber and plasticizer content, selectivity values are presented as a function of cigarette length and relative proportion of the cigarette which is allotted to the filter. Further, it is shown that selectivity appears to increase with length for given filter construction parameters. A limited amount of data regarding selectivity for weak acid components of mainstream smoke and certain gas phase components is presented as a characterization of dual filters currently on the US market
Volkan Eyupoglu, Ahmet Surucu and Ahmet Kunduracioglu
In present study, the synergistic separation of Cr(VI) has been investigated from synthetic acidic solution containing Cr(VI), Co(II) and Ni(II) by fl at sheet supported liquid membrane (FSSLM) technique using triisooctylamine (TIOA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as carriers. The main goal of the study was based in the exploring of the synergistic effect of TBP on selective extraction of Cr(VI) in presence of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions. The various parameters related with membrane and aqueous solution properties were studied to identify the optimum extraction and stripping conditions of the Cr(VI) through FSSLM. In the optimum conditions, initial mass flux (J0) and separation factors (βCr/Co and βCr/Ni) were obtained as 1.49 x 10-05 (kg/m2.s), 382.2 and 725.3 respectively from aqueous H2SO4 media through Celgard 2500 (Celgard Inc., USA) polymer support. As a result, the considerable synergistic infl uence on selective transport of Cr(VI) through FSSLM using TIOA and TBP as carriers has been identifi ed.
Jenny Halleröd, Christian Ekberg, Elin Löfström-Engdahl and Emma Aneheim
Several solvents for Grouped ActiNide EXtraction (GANEX) processes have been investigated at Chalmers University of Technology in recent years. Four different GANEX solvents; cyclo-GANEX (CyMe4- -BTBP, 30 vol.% tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and cyclohexanone), DEHBA-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 20 vol.% N,N-di-2(ethylhexyl) butyramide (DEHBA) and cyclohexanone), hexanol-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and hexanol) and FS-13-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13)) have been studied and the results are discussed and compared in this work. The cyclohexanone based solvents show fast and high extraction of the actinides but a somewhat poor diluent stability in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. FS-13-GANEX display high separation factors between the actinides and lanthanides and a good radiolytic and hydrolytic stability. However, the distribution ratios of the actinides are lower, compared to the cyclohexanone based solvents. The hexanol-GANEX is a cheap solvent system using a rather stable diluent but the actinide extraction is, however, comparatively low.
This paper presents the feasibility for the removal of methyl orange (MO) dye from aqueous solution using an activated carbon prepared from Prosopis juliflora bark. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, contact time, adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature. The commonly applicable isotherms namely Freundlich and Langmuir equations are used for the prediction of isotherm parameters. A comparison of linear least-square method and a trial-and-error non-linear method are examined in Freundlich and Langmuir (Four forms) isotherms. The nature of adsorption isotherm feasibility was evaluated with dimensionless separation factors (RL). The dynamics of adsorption process was analyzed with Lagergren’s Pseudo-first order and Pseudo-second order kinetic equations. Thermodynamic parameters like the change in enthalpy (ΔHo), change in entropy (ΔSo) and change in Gibbs free energy (ΔGo) were evaluated and ΔGo shows a negative value whereas ΔHo shows the positive value indicating that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The functional group characterization of the adsorbent was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal stability of activated carbon was analyzed using Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential thermal analysis (DTA).
Peter Kaufholz, Fabian Sadowski, Andreas Wilden, Giuseppe Modolo, Frank W. Lewis, Andrew W. Smith and Laurence M. Harwood
The novel hydrophilic back-extraction agent TS-BTPhen (3,3ʹ,3ʺ,3ʹʺ-[3-(1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-diyl)-1,2,4-triazine-5,5,6,6-tetrayl]tetrabenzenesulfonic acid) was tested for its selectivity towards Am(III) over Cm(III) and Eu(III) with a TODGA (N,N,Nʹ,Nʹ-tetraoctyldiglycolamide) based solvent. Batch experiments were carried out using TS-BTPhen dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solution with tracers of 152Eu, 241Am and 244Cm. A significant increase of the separation factor for Cm over Am from SFCm/Am = 1.6 up to SFCm/Am = 3.3 was observed compared to the use of a TODGA-nitric acid system alone. Furthermore, stripping was possible at high nitric acid concentrations (0.6-0.7 mol/L) resulting in a low sensitivity to acidity changes. The influence of the TS-BTPhen concentration was analyzed. A slope of -2 was expected taking into account literature stoichiometries of the lipophilic analogue CyMe4BTPhen. However, a slope of -1 was found. Batch stripping kinetics showed fast kinetics for the trivalent actinides. As an alternative organic ligand the methylated TODGA derivate Me-TODGA (2-methyl-N,N,Nʹ,Nʹ-tetraoctyldiglycolamide) was tested in combination with the hydrophilic TS-BTPhen. The Am(III) separation was achieved at even higher nitric acid concentrations compared to TODGA.