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References Altakhaineh, Abdel R. M. 2016. What is a compound? The main criteria for compoundhood. ExELL 4(1). 58-86. Baugh, Albert C. & Cable, Thomas. 1993. A History of the English Language . London: Routledge. Blank, Andreas. 1999. Why do new meanings occur? A cognitive typology of the motivations for lexical Semantic change. In Blank, Andreas & Koch, Peter (eds.), Historical Semantics and Cognition , 61-90. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Blank, Andreas & Koch, Peter. 1999. Introduction: Historical semantics and cognition. In Blank, Andreas & Koch

., 2005. A typological, historical, and functional study of adpositions in the languages of the world . Doctoral dissertation, University of New Mexico. YAMAGUCHI, K., 2014. Eigo no fukugo-zenchishi no imihennka: yohokiban ni mo-toduku imihenka eno apurochi [A usage-based approach to semantic changes of English complex prepositions] Bull. of Nippon Sport Science University, vol. 43, no.2, pp. 65-69.


Semantic change is an important part of African American slang and involves two mechanisms: figuration and shifting. Both are enormously productive and account for numerous slang expressions based on standard English. This paper presents these processes in detail. Partially drawing from the author’s earlier publications, the presentation is based on lexical material from a sizable database of citations from contemporary African American sources collected through extensive fieldwork in the United States in recent years.

-383. Reichenbach, Hans. 1947. Elements of Symbolic Logic. London: Macmillan. Schaden, Gerhard. 2009. Present perfects compete. Linguistics and Philosophy 32. 115-141. Schaden, Gerhard. 2012. Modelling the “Aoristic Drift of the Present Perfect” as Inflation An Essay in Historical Pragmatics. International Review of Pragmatics 4. 261-292. Smith, Carlota. 1997. The Parameter of Aspect. Second Edition. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Smith, Carlota. 2003. Modes of Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Dasher, Alan B. 2005. Regularity in Semantic Change


The article argues that lexical borrowing is not only motivated by cultural factors linked to prestige or economical aspects but also by the speakers’ need for new lexical-semantic categories and for highly expressive metaphorical terms to operate with, which makes them borrow words. The semantic changes of the lexical borrowings point to the creation of new items in the semantic fields of the receiving language. The integration of borrowings into Hungarian and Romanian exemplifies these processes.

The purpose of this article is to present some reflections on the problems and solutions concerning the lexical meaning determination. First, to determine the meaning of the words it is specified the status of conceptual layer in the semiotic triangle. According to the German linguist Jost Trier, it is emphasized that semantic changes concern not only the individual words but the whole lexical field to which they belong, and thus the entire vocabulary. Thus, the meaning of a word is a part of the language content and each language evaluates and organizes the reality according to its own laws. Some examples compare the organization of the language content in different languages. It is necessary to study the lexical meaning in relation with the language content.


The onset of Professor Jacek Fisiak’s scholarly career is marked by his 1961 Ph.D. dissertation devoted to the lexical influence of English upon Polish. This study, conducted 55 years ago, offers a multilayered analysis and sets the standards of studies on lexical transfer from English to Polish for the years to come. The present article is a tribute to Fisiak’s first scholarly endeavor; it examines the fate of lexical items comprising Fisiak’s corpus in the second decade of the 21st century. More specifically, by conducting searches in the National Corpus of Polish as well as a Google search, the paper checks which borrowings to the Polish language listed and scrutinized by Fisiak gained popularity, which fell out of use, and which underwent semantic changes.


This article aims to offer some insight into manifestations of language contact in the particular case of English and Romanian. It focuses on lexical, morpho-syntactic, semantic and discourse-related aspects of the influence of the former in the context of the latter. In particular, after pointing out the areas in which anglicization is especially obvious, attention is paid to: the adaptation of anglicisms so as to fit Romanian syntactic patterns; code switching and its functions; borrowing-triggered semantic change; lexical-semantic calques; and patterns of English written genres imposing new standards for equivalent Romanian genres.

языкознанию: в 2 томах. Том 2. Москва: Издательство Академии наук СССР. Biber, D., Conrad, S. & Reppen, R. (1998). Corpus linguistics: Investigating language structure and use . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Binder, J.R., Desai, R.H., Graves, W.W. & Conant, L.L. (2009). Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. In Cerebral cortex , 19 (12), p. 2767-2796. Blank, A. (1999). Why do new meanings occur? A cognitive typology of the motivations for lexical semantic change. In Historical semantics and

References Traugott, Elizabeth Closs and Richard Dasher. 2002. Regularity in semantic change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.