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The study focuses on the process of being aware of own I in children acquiring Slovak language at an early age and living in a Slovak family. The aim of the research is to understand the process of acquiring the means by which children refer to themselves in the interaction with an adult person. The research uses the qualitative longitudinal method of individual case study. A child’s speech is researched from the very first occurrence of a self-reference mean in 16th month up to the upper limit of early age (36th month) and all that is based on audio-visual records transcripts. The following are researched: (a) succession of self-reference means acquisition in early childhood, (b) function of self-reference linguistic means, (c) process of child’s self-awareness. The results obtained based on the linguistic data in Slovak language are compared with the results of similarly focused researches in English, French, Polish, Russian and Bulgarian language. The research reveals some constants in the development of self-reference instruments that can be observed throughout various language-cultural environments. The research is a part of solutions within the grant project VEGA 1/0099/16 Personal and Social Deixis in Slovak Language.


In this paper I present four interpretations of so-called negative theology and provide a number of attempts to model this theory within a formal system. Unfortunately, all of them fail in some manner. Most of them are simply inconsistent, some contradict the usual religious praxis and discourse, and some do not correspond to the key theses of negative theology. I believe that this paper shows how challenging this theory is from a logical perspective.


Life is full of ambiguities, but as teachers we generally try to teach our students in a manner that sanitizes knowledge of all of its ambiguities. In doing so, we create an educational environment which forces students to learn in a rather meaningless fashion and this in turn leads to a lack of vitality and relevance within the academy. This need not be the case. As teachers, we should reflect on the epistemological foundations of our theories of learning and teaching and to closely examine how our teaching devices and techniques adhere to our theories. Furthermore, we need to be receptive to making any changes in our theories and teaching practice that may be warranted by the critical and creative thinking process that we apply to our professional activities. This paper attempts to guide readers through such a reflexive thinking process by trying to loosely establish a relationship between the deep concept of ambiguity (uncertainty) and some of our theories of learning via the acceptance of the view that the ultimate foundation of all human knowledge is ambiguity. We create and establish the meaning of all of our knowledge via a process of self-referencing logos. An implication of the application of self-referencing logic is the notion that a teacher can simultaneously learn and teach (“the learning teacher”). Thus, this can serve as the basis for developing the model of the “reflexive practitioner” in the teaching profession.


The present article highlights the importance of the comparative longitudinal study of massmediated content in comparing the evolution of public spheres in neighbouring countries. In order to contextualize our research on the Estonian media system, we simultaneously conducted a similar study on Finnish and Russian newspapers of the same period. The 20th century was a period of rapid change in Estonian society and, compared with Finnish and Russian newspapers, Estonian newspapers paid more attention to issues that were labelled as “cultural”. In the Estonian press the understanding that ‘culture’ is important prevailed, as it was one of the most stable elements of content throughout the century. The significance of governance-politics and economics depended on the political situation and historical context. The interpretation of data is based on the binaries “centre” vs. “periphery” and “self-reference” vs. “other-reference”.


The essay offers a brief overview of famous Irish playwright Samuel Beckett’s intermedial practices. By exploring a number of artistic media (drama, theatre, novel, television play, film) the artist tried to get at the essentials of each medium by virtue of his minimalist and media-conscious aesthetics. As a result of this gesture he uncovered certain transmedial properties such as musical rhythm and structure, montage, black and white film and photography aesthetics and tenebrism situated at the core of supposed media-specificity. Moreover, it is argued that Beckettian intermediality has a pronounced meta-referential dimension as defined by Werner Wolf. Most, if not all, of Beckett’s artworks include a medial self-reference of sorts such as the comment on the disembodiment of speech in radio plays or on the formative powers of lighting in theatre and film. What they also do is make the spectator aware of the fact of mediation and of what it entails. Therefore, the essay ultimately aims to show the immense significance of Beckett to intermediality studies not simply as an artist and a case study but as a media and intermediality theorist as well.


Background: Throughout the financial crisis in Greece, health expenditures have been significantly reduced. As a result, patients’ accessibility to various health care providers has been significantly reduced. The aim of the present study was to determine the profile of patients visiting a maxillofacial clinic in Northern Greece and the patients’ accessibility to the specific healthcare.

Material and Methods: Data were collected from 481, out of the 600, patients visiting for the first time the University Maxillofacial Clinic of a hospital in Northern Greece during 2013 and 2014. The sample was called to answer to an anonymous self-reference questionnaire with questions regarding their demographic and clinical characteristics, the pattern of their referral to the specific clinic, their city of residence, as well as information regarding their hospitalization.

Results: The majority of patients (53.4%) were referred by a physician, while 38.4% by a dentist. More than half (51.4%) were admitted to the specific clinic with admission diagnoses such as Benign Lesions-Cysts (25.2%), Masticatory Myalgia-Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction (21.6%), Infections (19.5%) and Fractures (18%). The median time to seek to hospital evaluation/treatment, from the initial diagnosis, was 30 days. Nine out of ten patients stated that there was no Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic in their area of residence, while 80.3% reported using a private means of transport to access the clinic.

Conclusions: The results indicated a delay with respect to the final diagnosis, as well as difficulty in patients’ accessibility, something that could contribute to an increase in morbidity and subsequently in the cost for managing patients’ maxillofacial problems.

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