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. 2012 Apr; 3(2):167-75 5. Laye-Gindhu A, Schonert-Reichl KA. Nonsuicidal self-harm among community adolescents: understanding the “whats” and “whys” of self-harm. J Youth Adolesc. 2005;34(5):447–457 6. Kulikowska A. Samouszkodzenia umiarkowane z perspektywy terapii uzależnień Małopolski Ośrodek Szkolenia Terapeutów Uzależnień (MOSTU); eseje uczestników 2010 7. Amerykańskie Towarzystwo Psychiatryczne Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition DSM-5 New School Library 2013; 461-480 8. Urban E. & Partner Kryteria diagnostyczne z DSM-5 Wrocław

could trigger thoughts of self-harm, self-criticism/condemnation, guilt or shame in humans. Consequently, the CFT works by aiming to modify or change self-harm/suicide or self-criticism to compassionate self-correction through various means of compassionate exercises such as self-regulatory practices, mindfulness and compassionate imagery. This suggests that an imbalance in emotions breeds abnormal thoughts and behaviours; however, the introduction of compassion functions to balance these emotions and enhance normal functioning. Compared to other psychotherapies, the


The literature review focuses on the importance of stress in parents of a child with autism spectrum disorders, which significantly affects family life. The main cause of the burden are accompanying difficulties that are the part of disorder. This applies to specific reactions such as fits of anger, self-harm, psychomotor agitation, eating disorders, sleep disorders and other troubles which require almost 24-hour care. This review assesses several research studies that deal with the issue and which can be examples of good practice.


The issue of parental neglect is a constantly topical one. Neglect is not only the lack of satisfying basic needs, but also the lack of ensuring a sense of security, belonging, and insufficient physical, emotional or verbal closeness with the child. Poor parental care, lack of a sense of closeness and availability of the parent, along with other environmental factors (e.g. addictions, diseases and mental disorders in the family) result in abnormal formation of the child’s personality, and can also be associated with depression, anxiety, self-harm or suicide attempts.

The aim of the study was to present the clinical cases of two teenage patients (AA. – 13 years old, BB. – 16 years old) staying in the I Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention in Lublin (Department for Children and Youth), whose mental health problems were caused by a constant neglect on the part of parents.

Case reports: The patients came from dysfunctional families in which members showed a tendency to addiction (alcohol) and were emotionally and physically absent from the lives of the girls. Due to considerable upbringing problems, girls were hospitalized many times, both in paediatric wards and in psychiatric wards for children and adolescents, with various medical diagnoses.

Conclusions: The presented cases of two patients indicate a potential cause-and-effect relationship between parental neglect, coexisting environmental factors (addictions of family members) and abnormal formation of the child’s personality, self-harm or suicide attempts. In such family systems, it is extremely important, apart from a court-appointed family guardian, to introduce a family assistant to provide emotional or advisory support.


Both alcohol use disorder and depression are important aspects of health in the general population and among patients with epilepsy. Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy, thereby increasing morbidity as well as mortality rate. From our experience, we can see that one third of epilepsy inpatients experience seizures that are alcohol-related. There have been no studies conducted in Latvia about alcohol use disorder and depression in patients with alcohol-related seizures (ARS) and epilepsy. We recruited 108 patients with ARS, 44 of whom had comorbid epilepsy. 75% of patients in our study had depression according to the Hamilton depression scale. Higher score in the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test was associated with thoughts of self-harm. Greater consumption of alcohol on a typical day when drinking was associated with a higher risk of alcohol dependence. Of patients without epilepsy, 60% received antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and 17% even used 2–3 different drugs to overcome ARS. A large part of patients had not been warned by their physician that alcohol provokes seizures. Our data could help to identify greater suicidality risk and alcohol dependence risk cases in patients with ARS, as well as improve care for this group of patients in general.


The youngest population in society is recognized as that at the healthiest stage of life but is burdened by the occurrence of premature death that should be avoidable. There is a need to use adequate statistical methods in assessing the health status of the population of developmental age. The aim of the study was to analyze trends of mortality in children and adolescents by age and gender in the Podlaskie Voivodeship in the years 2003-2012 by joinpoint regression and to identify the causes of mortality. The mortality rate was analysed according to gender and the age groups: 0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 years in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. The data were obtained from the Central Statistical Office for the period 2003-2012. Differences in mortality levels between age and gender subgroups were obtained by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Join- point regression was used to analyze the trends in mortality. The nomenclature of ICD-10 was used to assess the causes of mortality of children and adolescents. In the Podlaskie Voivodeship in the years 2003-2012 in the 0-19-year-old age group, the highest proportion of deaths (42.4%) occurred during the first year of life. There were differences in mortality rates between boys (8.0/104) and girls (3.1/104) in the 15-19-year-old age group (p < 0.01), and also between the 1-14-year-old and 15-19-year-old age groups (p < 0.01), both among boys (2.1/104 vs. 8.0/104) and girls (1.5/104 vs. 3.1/104). Monotonous trends were shown regarding total mortality rates in infants. There was a drop in the mortality rate of infant girls (AAPC = 5.3%, p < 0.05) and boys (AAPC = 4.7%, p < 0.05). Changes in the direction of the total mortality rate trend were visible in the population of boys aged 1-14 years, in which, between 2003 and 2010, a significant reduction in mortality (AAPC = 9.5%) was observed, while in the years 2010-2012 the trend was not significant. No statistical evidence was found that mortality changed among girls in the 1-14-year-old and 15-19-year-old age groups. Deaths in infancy were due to perinatal conditions and congenital mal- formations. The main causes of mortality in the 1-19-year-old age group were external causes, mainly traffic accidents and intentional self-harm. Joinpoint regression indicated a uniform decrease of mortality in the years 2003-2012 except for boys from 1-14 years old, for whom the decreasing trend was for the years 2003-2010 with subsequent stabilization. The main problems are still infant deaths due to perinatal conditions, traffic accidents and intentional self-harm in boys in the 15-19-year-old age group.


Introduction: Trichotillomania is a mental disorder characterized by a repetitive and compulsive hair pulling, classified in ICD-10 to a group of habit and impulse disorders, and in the DSM-5 to the group of obsessive-compulsive disorders.

Aim: The aim of the study is to present on the basis of case study:1). the importance of traumatic family experiences in releasing as well as maintaining the symptoms of Trichotillomania, 2). comprehensive medical care, the application of which has resulted in a beneficial therapeutic effect.

Results: In the described case of 16-year-old patient, Trichotillomania was triggered by traumatic events related to lack of support and family stabilization resulting from parental disputes and grandfather’s death, when she was 11 years old. The subsequent years of her life, in spite of the divorce of her parents and their separate residence, abounded in periods of turbulent quarrels between the parents in which she was involved. Each time this type of incident was associated with the recurrence of behavior associated with Trichotil-lomania, the course of which was more severe with the occurrence of self-harm and suicidal thoughts.

Conclusions: 1. In the described case, traumatic events and pathological relations of the immediate family members were not only thetriggering factor, but also maintaining the Trichotillomania symptoms. 2. In accordance with the guidelines of Trichotillomania Learning Center-Scientific Advisory Board (2008), the use of a comprehensive treatment including both the patient - individual psycho-therapy (especially cognitive-behavioral therapy) and pharmacotherapy, as well as her family (family psychotherapy, family mediation, workshops for parents), brought about positive therapeutic effects.


Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the differences in selected clinical variables and self-image in people with alcohol dependence differing in severity of physical, emotional and sexual abuse experienced before age 18.

Method: The study included 90 people with alcohol dependence. The following research tools were used: Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), Adjective Check List (ACL), MAST, SAAD, and a questionnaire designed by the authors. In order to identify groups with varying indices of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse, a cluster analysis method was used.

Results: Two groups of subjects with alcohol dependence were identified: Group 1 with high indices of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse and Group 2 with low indices. In terms of self-image the subjects in Group 1 compared to subjects in Group 2 were characterized by a lower self-esteem, self-acceptance, resistance to stress, less intense needs for achievement, endurance, order, nurturing others, interaction with opposite-sex partners, subordinations but more intense need for change. The age of alcohol use initiation and the onset of regular alcohol drinking was statistically significantly lower in Group 1. The severity of alcohol dependence was significantly lower in Group 2. The subjects in Group 1 significantly more frequently confirmed the history of a hereditary predisposition to alcohol dependence, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and self-harm.

Discussion: The obtained results closely correspond to the data available in the literature.

Conclusions: An assessment of exposure to various forms of childhood abuse appears to be an indispensable element of collecting medical history of people with alcohol dependence.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the pathological personality traits in predicting suicidal ideation, especially in combination with other risk factors, such as the level of depression, prior attempts of suicide, low self-esteem, low level of perceived social support and self-esteem-by-social support interaction, both in general and in psychiatric inpatient samples. Data were analysed within two samples: non-clinical general sample (n = 461) and psychiatric inpatient sample (n = 131). Latvian Clinical Personality Inventory (LCPI) was used as the instrument for data collection. LCPI is a comprehensive multi-scale multi-item inventory, which consists of nine clinical scales (including Depression Symptom Scale), 33 pathological personality scales, five functioning scales, and five additional scales, including a Suicidal Ideation Scale, Low Self-esteem Scale and Lack of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that several facet-level pathological personality traits (depressivity, self-harm, dissociation proneness, submissiveness, and suspiciousness) added significant incremental variance to the prediction of suicidal ideation above and beyond the well-known main risk factors of suicidal ideation, such as depression and prior suicide attempt. This effect remained stable even after taking into account additional interpersonal risk factors, such as low self-esteem, low level of perceived social support and self-esteem-by-perceived social support interaction. The incremental effect of personality traits was medium in the psychiatric inpatient sample and small in the general sample. Findings of the study may assist in early screening for persons with suicide risk and for developing prevention programmes in different settings.


References Commission on the Future of Policing in Ireland. (2018). The future of policing in Ireland . Retrieved from [2 January 2019]. Implementation Oversight Group. (2018). Implementation of Penal Policy Review Group recommendations. Sixth report of the Implementation Oversight Group to the Minister for Justice and Equality . Retrieved from [2 January 2019]. Irish Prison Service. (2018a). Annual report 2017 . Longford: Irish Prison Service. Irish Prison Service. (2018b). Self-harm in Irish prisons 2017