Since the colonial period in Africa, ruling elites have manipulated laws regulating citizenship to advance their political and economic interests. The European colonialists used citizenship laws to enhance their ability to maintain control over the colonies and minimize the ability of Africans to fight for independence. Many Africans believed that independence and the establishment of new institutional arrangements would allow them to develop a common national citizenship, one in which all the citizens of each country would have equality before the law and be granted equal opportunity for self-actualization within all parts of the country, regardless of their racial or ethnic affiliation. However, in the post-independence period, incumbent political elites have been acting like their colonial counterparts and have used citizenship laws to get rid of critical and opposing voices by depriving these people of their nationality. In 1996, for example, Zambia’s ruling political party, the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD), adopted a new constitution, which effectively stripped the country’s independence president, Kenneth Kaunda, of his Zambian citizenship and prevented him from challenging the MMD for leadership of the country. Similarly, in 2000, then president of Côte d’Ivoire, Henri Konan Bédié, changed the constitution and introduced a citizenship clause that effectively disqualified the candidacy of his main opposition, Alassane Ouattara. South Africa’s apartheid regime, on the other hand, introduced a racially-based multilayered citizenship system in which individuals of European origin were placed at the top, enjoying full citizenship rights, and Africans were relegated to the bottom with extremely attenuated citizenship rights. Some African groups were actually forced to lose their South African citizenship. Citizenship is a complex issue and one that citizens of a country must deal with. The paper suggests that in doing so, African countries must not allow citizenship to be defined by race, ethnicity, religion, or other ascriptive traits, but by allegiance or fidelity to a set of values or ideals (e.g., democracy, rule of law, equality before the law) that define the nation.
Humans have always been and still are fascinated by the elusive phenomenon of soul and have devised various approaches to interpret it and attribute different names to it; depending on which part, which religion, which tribe and which sect of the world they belong to. Theologians to philosophers to spiritual thinkers to literary authors and critics to scientists—all seem to be researching and explaining its nature and place in the universal scheme of things. Interestingly, there is a unanimity among all, regarding the eternity and indestructibility of soul. The ancient Hindu scripture, Bhagavad Gita establishes soul (Jivatma) as a triad of Self, Nature (Prakriti: material reality) and God (Parmeshvara). The inner self is Soul which bears reflections of both, the physical nature and God. Malleable in ignorance, it identifies with the sense-perception dominated body but once realising its true nature, it is capable of governing the body and its actions. With the support mechanisms and persistence, it traverses across individual body consciousness to universal consciousness. This article strives to make a hermeneutic study of this metaphysical text; inquiring how awareness of the duality of nature; transient and permanent, triggers a gradual process of evolution, leading to a complete transformation when a soul resides within a body as a unifying factor; not for exploiting it or others or vice versa but for bringing about universal harmony.
Alla Matuszak, Natalya Uvarina and Zbigniew Matuszak
The aim of the paper is viewing the ways to develop learners’ creativity potential. The concept of learners’ creativity potential is defined. The structure of creativity potential is specified. Two groups of activities included into the technology are described: the activity of the teacher (activating, cognitive-search, reflexive components); creative self-actualization of students (motivational, procedural, effective components). The methodology of the research includes case study and pedagogical experiment (the pretest-post-test control and experimental group design). Data are gathered by means of conversational interviewing. The research results in suggesting a technology to develop learners’ creativity potential. The paper includes the results of testing the impact of the technology on the level of creativity. The criteria of development of divergent thinking fluency, flexibility, originality, accuracy; self-reliance; imagination; creative motivation; reflexive-analytical skills were considered.
Statistical data processing is performed applying the chi-square test. It shows that the suggested technology is effective in developing learners’ creativity potential.
Yves Robichaud, Jean-Charles Cachon, Abdellatif Taghzouti, Abdelouahid Assaidi and José Nicolas Barragan Codina
This research tried to identify similarities and differences in motives between male urban entrepreneurs from Mexico and Morocco. The Mexican sample of 192 respondents was drawn from Chambers of Commerce listings in Guadalajara and Monterrey. The Moroccan sample of 222 respondents came from the Fès-Meknès region. In both countries a majority of entrepreneurs went into business by necessity and pursued monetary goals in order to secure their financial future for their families and for themselves. Larger cohorts of younger entrepreneurs were present in Mexico, where female spouses tended to be more often involved in their husband’s business and contributing more to family income, as compared to Morocco. In Mexico, a larger proportion of entrepreneurs were also expressing a very strong interest for intrinsic goals involving self-actualization, meeting challenges, while Moroccan respondents were more in search for autonomy and independence besides pursuing extrinsic or financial goals. Results generally confirm results obtained elsewhere in Africa and Latin America.
Types of non-formal adult education in the USA and Canada are singled out. Non-formal adult education in the United States and Canada is subdivided into basic adult education, education for professional development, education for personal development, specialized adult education, education for the development of civil society (constituents of which are education for peace, citizenship and democracy; education for protection of environment; multicultural education). The purpose and main assignments of adult education for professional development are systematized. The purpose is professional development, meeting the needs of personal development, self-actualization and self-realization in professional life. Its main tasks are: formation of positive attitude to professional work and motivation for professional growth; enriching social and professional competence; development of adequate professional conduct. Types of educational establishments for adults are systematized. University colleges, community colleges, colleges of general and vocational education, colleges of applied arts are an alternative to university education of adults in Canada and the USA. Specifics of programs in American and Canadian colleges is analyzed. Colleges and institutes introduce programs aimed at solving social problems, taking into account labor market demands. They offer training programs for development of applied skills in business, art, technology, agriculture, social and educational fields, medicine. A special place in non-formal education for professional development is given to education for the labor market, which is aimed at obtaining specific professional competencies that are necessary at labor market. Adults are involved in professional programs, trainings, courses, seminars, internships.
The necessity to form and develop future technology teachers’ creative abilities has been stressed in the article. The psychologic-pedagogical researches of the leading specialists from Europe, the USA and Japan in the field of creative work and creativity have been analyzed. The main problems of the creative artistic-projective abilities development have been determined based on the analysis and synthesis of foreign and native philosophic, pedagogical and psychological literature dedicated to characteristics of such notions as “creative work” and “creativity”. Approaches and conceptions providing students – future technology teachers – with creative activities have been singled out. The gist of psychological mechanism for forming teachers’ creative personality has been established and its basic features have been determined as a result of the world experience of the theory and methods of creative abilities development generalization. The main features are as follows: an independence and an inclination towards divergent behavior; flexibility of thinking and readiness for everything new; motivation for self-actualization; striving for self-expressing and ability to creative work; ability to find out how to set and solve the problems. It has been mentioned that the technology teachers’ artistic-projective activity requires their creative abilities development, which, in their turn, are formed on the ground of well-developed general and special (art, projective, technological, pedagogical) potencies. Therefore, the effectiveness of the students’ art-projective knowledge and skills forming depends upon the extent their general, special and creative abilities have been developed. That is why skillful and pedagogically correct organization of future technology teachers’ artistic-projective activities will inevitably provide the higher qualitatively new level of their creative abilities and creativity.
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