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References Mirski, A. (2006). Psychological competences at school. In B. Muchacka (Ed.), Education of teachers for future schools (pp. 63-79). Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza Impuls. [in Polish] Witkowski, T. (1978). Introduction to AS-3 Scale (part I). Lublin: Wyd. KUL. [in Polish] Żylicz, P.O. (1996). Self-actualisation vs. Moral Integration . Warszawa: Fundacja ATK. [in Polish] Maslow, A.H. (2004). Towards the Psychology of Existence (2 nd edition). Warszawa: Wyd. REBIS. [in Polish] Maslow, A.H. (1990). Motivation vs. Personality (2 nd edition). Warszawa


Issues of communication, isolation, and education are part of our everyday lives, whether private or professional. The behaviour of the young generation at school and at home has different forms. It demonstrates their actions, way of thinking and feeling. Furthermore, their behaviour expresses their future tendencies. These forms of behaviour are strongly influenced by a lack of communication. As a result, the educational process is made harder, sometimes even impossible. Many experts in ethics, pedagogy and psychology have been paying attention to this issue and have started to evaluate its impact on the young.


The main goal of this empirical research was to define those crucial leadership characteristics and behaviours of experienced individuals that confirmed them as leaders in the Croatian transition economy, based on success of their entrepreneurial or social affirmations. The basic research question was: What is the empirical base for classifying leaders into homogeneous groups? Results of the general characteristics cluster analysis singled out three clusters Moderates, Internalists and Globalists. Inductive approach and supporting intermediate cluster analysis based on subjective dimension “career development expectations” aligned leaders from the sample in two homogenous groups: Leaders who seek self-actualisation and Leaders who seek for self-affirmation. Three clusters, Classical capitalists - materialists, Liberal capitalists - idealists and Capitalists non materialists were derived based on the confirmation of the personal success.


The aim of the article is to answer the question of why contemporary interpersonal relationships need dialogue in cultural and social transformations ?

The article is based on the conclusions of the author’s research carried out among a selected group of students revealing the characteristics of homo construens. Young people who took part in the research directed (constructed) the scripts of partnership and family biographies as free, original and willing to change. On the other hand, the same scripts unmasked loneliness and a huge need for recognition in the world of cultural and narcissistic demands for self-actualisation, satisfaction and a sense of fulfilment in the spheres of partnerships and family. The need for dialogue requires pedagogical support that will reveal the values of community, social groups and partnerships.


Implementation of the result-oriented (self-)education paradigm in the general education school requires sustainable changes in didactics not only on the strategic document plane but also in educational practice. However, its implementation in practice is complicated. The success of the interaction between theory and practice largely depends on the teacher’s professionalism. Therefore, the insights that have emerged in the context of teachers’ practical experiences applying self-directed learning are important identifying preconditions for sustainable changes in didactics. The semi-structured written survey and the content analysis enabled the authors to find out preconditions for changes in didactics, manifesting themselves through the teacher’’s personal self-actualisation, the student’s empowerment to learn and redistribution of powers of participants of the educational process. Research results suggest that identified preconditions for changes in didactics are interrelated and illustrate manifestation of sustainable changes in didactics.


Emerging adulthood, in numerous individual biographies, also in the case of disabled people, is the time of permanent need for self-actualisation and time of verifying one’s subjective vision of “being an adult,” i.e. being responsible for one’s own decisions, pursuing professional and economic independence. Due to developmental acceleration, sociological shift in terms of undertaken roles and realized developmental tasks as well as their moratorium-linked delays, it is also the time conducive to educational activity. This psychological time of a young person, its course and specificity depend, to a large extent, on numerous (micro-, mezo- and macro-) conditions of family life and social life in today’s world which is more competitive and less predictable than it used to be for generation of the late 1990s. All of these factors contribute to the fact that maturing to adulthood seems to be a state which is harder to achieve nowadays. It is displayed in the form of delaying the moment of taking up a job or other important decisions in family and relationship contexts.

The study aims to present the selected aspects of daily life of disabled young adults, described in the context of developmental tasks of this period and considering the perspective of investment in relationships, development of one’s own resources, pursuing education and entering the job market which are all, from a temporal perspective, a chance of complementing one’s own identity.


Individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews with three mathematics teachers were conducted to investigate the dynamics of their life-long relationships with mathematics, synthesised as mathematical identity from different identity positions in the context of dialogical self. The qualitative data were scrutinised employing interpretive phenomenological analysis that displayed mostly positive instrumental relationships with mathematics and explicit connections between the teachersí life experiences and their disctinct identity voices that surfaced in interviews. Similarly, teachers appeared to be experts in different professional spheres: pedagogy, subject or didactics. The teachersí accounts contain various models of relationships between the other-motive and the self-motive as reflected in their pedagogical approaches. Emergent patterns resulting from the interaction of the teachersí mathematical identity and their perception of studentsí mathematical philia/phobia included the humanistic approach with an instrumental interpretation of mathematics and its teaching methods, self-actualisation in achieving success in mathematics through hard work and the issue of attribution of failure in mathematics either to external or internal factors. Moreover, these dialogical models and interactive patterns show alignement with one of the core competences for educators in education for sustainable development, that is, achieving transformation in what it means to be an educator, in teaching and learning, as well as in the entire education system. Practical implementation of findings and limitations of the study are outlined along with venues for future research.

students really have fixed images of elders? The Journals of Gerontology B 60 (1), 37–S47. Lind, E. (2013). Possibilities for creative self-actualisation in craft. Differences and similarities in handcraft in the 19th and 21st century in Estonian general education schools. Interdisciplinary Journal for Music and Art Pedagogy , 5 (1), 149–159. Lubart, T. I., & Georgsdottir, A. (2004). Creativity: Developmental and cross-cultural issues. In Lau, S., Nui, A.N.N., & Ng, G.Y.C. (Eds.). Creativity: When East meets East . (23-54). World Scientific publishing, Co. Pte

: Postmodern (Narrative) Career Counselling and Education Special Issue, 2(23), 1–41. Bar-On, R. E. (2001). Emotional intelligence and self-actualisation. In P. Salovey (ed.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific inquiry (pp. 82–97). Philadelphia: Psychology Press. Bar-On, R. E., Parker, J. D. (2000). The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Beutell, N. (2006). Life satisfaction: a Sloan network encyclopedia entry. Journal of Sloan Work

. Developmental Psychology, 27, 516-519. Hyde, J. S., & Phillis, D. E. (1979). Androgyny across the life span. Developmental Psychology, 15(3), 334-336. Hunt, J. (2004). Introduction to gender analysis concepts and steps. Development Bulletin, 64, 100-106. Hunter, L. M., Hatch, A., & Johnson, A. (2004). Cross-national gender variation in environmental behaviors. Social Science Quarterly, 85(3), 677-694. Ivtzan, I., & Conneely, R. (2009). Androgyny in the mirror of self-actualisation and spiritual health. The Open Psychology Journal, 2, 58-70. Kark, R. (2017). Androgyny. In V